Tuesday, May 31, 2011

St. Luke's Parochial School

Marietta Gazette, June 6, 1835

First semi-annual examination of St. Luke's Parochial School,
June 1, 1835.

The following testimonials were presented.

Male Preparatory Department:
Best General Scholarship - David Loring Brown
Spelling - David Loring Brown
Reading - George Nye and George W. Todd
Writing and Geography - Joseph Crawford

Junior Class:
Best General Scholarship - Hiram McNeil Brown
Spelling - Edward Roe
Reading - Chatham R. Wheat
Writing - David Hebard
English Grammar - Irenius Geren and John Russel Crawford
Geography - David Hebbard
Arithmetic, 1st division - David Hebbard
Arithmetic, 2d division - John Hall and J. R. Crawford

Second Class:
Best General Scholarship - Joseph Wood; William Spencer Nye
Spelling - Joseph Wood and William Spencer Nye
Reading - William S. Ward
Writing - William S. Ward
English Grammar - Joseph Wood
Arithmetic, 1st division - Joseph Wood and William Spencer Nye
Arithmetic, 2d division - Henry Kelly
Geography and History - Charles Butler Hall
Latin Grammar - William Spencer Nye
French - Joseph Wood
Pencillings and India Ink Drawings - R. Lane Sullivan

Senior Class:
Special Testimonials of Excellence:
English Grammar, Arithmetic and Surveying - Isaac H. Delong; Hiram E. True
Arithmetic - E. G. Doane
Latin - George Mayberry
Geometry, Logic, Rhetoric and History - Arius Spencer Nye and Isaac H. Jones

Female Department, Junior Class:
Best General Scholarship - Susan Buell
Spelling - Susan Buell
Reading - Harriet Dunlevy
Writing - Caroline Greene
Arithmetic - Maria Woodbridge
Narrative - Julia C. H. Willard and Jane Jones

Second Class:
Best General Scholarship - Sally Maria Buell
Spelling - Sally Maria Buell
Reading - Mary Millard
Writing - Susan Dodge
Arithmetic - Sally Maria Buell
English Grammar - S. M. Buell
Map-drawing - S. M. Buell

First Class:
Special Testimonials of Excellence:
Arithmetic, Geography, Map-drawing, abstracts of History and Natural Philosophy - Harriet Holden, Anne Maria Ward, Eunice McFarland, Sarah D. Roe
French - Sarah D. Roe
Music - Ann Maria Ward

The following is a list of those to whom the highest honors were given:

Preparatory Department:
David Loring Brown; Joseph Crawford

Junior Class:
Hiram McNeil Brown; David Hebbard; J. R. Crawford; Chatham R. Wheat; Charles E. Swearingen

Second Class:
Joseph Wood; William S. Nye; William S. Ward; Charles B. Hall; A. V. Swearingen; Ira Hill; Henry Kelly; Henry Anderson; Pardon Cook

Female Department, Junior Class:
Susan Buell; Maria Woodbridge; Jane Jones

Second Class:
Sally Maria Buell; Mary Ann Reckard; Eliza Ann Reckard; Susanna Dodge; Sarah Elizabeth Cole; Mary Millard; Frances Rowena Nye

First Class:
Harriet Holden; A. M. Ward; E. McFarland; and Sarah Roe

The above testimonials were certified by:

Thomas Bell, Professor of Ancient Languages and Mathematics.
G. M. Martin, Professor of French.
Charles Sullivan, Professor of Drawing and Painting.
Mrs. Sheppard, Professor of Music.
Miss Clarke, Teacher of Female Department.
J. Thomas Wheat, Rector.
Arius Nye, E. B. Swearingen, and D. H. Buell, Committee.

Order of Exercises at the first semi-annual exhibition of St. Luke's Parochial School.

Music - Prayer - Music.
Voluntary Recitations, by the First Class.
Voluntary Recitations, by the Second Class.
Voluntary Recitations, by the Third Class.
Oration on Chivalry (original), by I. H. Jones.
Report of School Committee.
Delivery of Testimonials.
Valedictory, by I. H. DeLong.

Sunday, May 29, 2011

Milliner and Mantuamaker

Marietta Gazette, April 30, 1836

The subscriber would respectfully inform the ladies of Marietta, and its vicinity, that she has just received the latest Fashions for Summer Bonnets and Dresses, and is now prepared to attend to all orders in the Milliner and Mantuamaking Business.  Grateful for past favors, she hopes by close application to business, and a strict attention to good taste, to secure a liberal share of patronage.  She intends to keep on hand a supply of silk bonnets and artificial flowers.  Five or six young ladies are wanted as apprentices.

Orinda H. King.
Marietta, April 30.

Saturday, May 28, 2011

Muskingum Ferry

The Marietta Gazette, August 9, 1834

An Ordinance to regulate the Muskingum Ferry.

Be it ordained by the Mayor, Recorder, and Trustees of the Town of Marietta, in Council assembled.

Sec. 1.  That the lessee or lessees of the Muskingum Ferry shall be, and they are hereby required to keep a regular and orderly ferry, with some suitable person in attendance at all times, from sun-rise until nine o'clock at night, each and every day of the whole term of such lease granted by the Trustees of said Town, in Council assembled.

Sec. 2.  The boat or boats to be kept clean, free from water, in good order; and when the water will not admit of boats floating, a bridge of plank, at least three feet wide, for foot passengers, to be laid even, one plank butting against the other, and not to lap one over the other, shall be placed over that part of the ferry way when boats cannot float, that the passengers be not detained.

Sec. 3.  That the highest price to be paid by any citizen of the Town, for himself and family, with horses, carriage or teams, except with wood, sand, clay, brick, castings, and other heavy extra loading, shall not exceed five dollars per annum; and others in proportion to their crossing, down to the sum of one dollar and fifty cents per annum, for all citizens of the Town, who may elect to cross by the year, giving satisfactory security to the lessee or lessees to pay semi-annually.

Sec. 4.  When the lessee or lessees and the citizen cannot agree as to the sum to be paid for crossing said ferry per annum, or for extra crossing with articles excepted - the citizens may call on the Mayor, Recorder and Treasurer of the town, whose duty it shall be to fix the sum so, as aforesaid, to be paid, which shall be immediately complied with, or such citizens shall forfeit all the privileges of this ordinance.

Sec. 5.  The Muskingum ferry, aforesaid, shall be leased from time to time or terms in accordance with this ordinance, and for such term of time as the Trustees of said Town, in Council assembled, shall determine by resolution or otherwise.

Sec. 6.  For any breach of this ordinance the person or persons so liable, and so offending, shall forfeit and pay for the use of the town, on complaint to the Mayor, not less than one dollar, nor more than thirty dollars, with costs.

Sec. 7.  This ordinance to be in force from and after the fifth of August next, and all laws relative to the same heretofore passed are hereby repealed.

Nahum Ward, Mayor.
Caleb Emerson, Recorder, Pro tem.
Passed July 17, 1834.

Friday, May 27, 2011

A Paved Foot Walk

The Marietta Gazette, August 9, 1834

Resolved, By the Mayor, Recorder, and Trustees of the Town of Marietta, That a paved foot walk, four feet wide, of hard burnt brick, or smooth flag stone, be made the present season, from the corner of the Court House lot, on Second and Putnam streets, and on the eastwardly side of Second street to the corner of lot 570, thence on the northerly side of Scammel street to Front street; and from the corner of lot No. 665 across Putnam street to the corner of square No. 52.

Resolved, That a gravel walk be made on the westwardly side of Second street from Scammel street to the foot of Liberty Hill, and from Second street, on the northerly side of Scammel street to Fourth street, except across the drains, which are to be made of stone.

Resolved, That the crossings of the streets, culverts on the drains, and the gravel from the drains north of the Methodist Meeting House, on Second street, and from Second street to Fourth street, on the northerly side of Scammel street, be done at the expense of the third ward; and that the residue be done at the expense of the lots, or the owners of the same on said lines, so as aforesaid; all under the direction of the Trustees of the Third Ward.

Nahum Ward, Mayor.
J. P. Wightman, Recorder.
Passed June 30th, 1834.

Thursday, May 19, 2011

The First Piano in Marietta

The Marietta Times, February 14, 1889

The following statement regarding an old piano will be of interest to Mariettans.  The instrument in question is probably the first one brought into the North-west Territory.  Judge Solomon Sibley, of Detroit, Michigan, married a Miss Sproat, of Marietta, Ohio, early in this century.  On the 357th page of a recent "History of Detroit" we find the following statement:  The first piano brought to Detroit was the property of Mrs. Solomon Sibley, formerly Miss Sproat.  She used it while attending school at Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, and (after her marriage in 1803) brought it with her to Detroit.  It was transported on horseback from Bethlehem to Marietta, and we may therefore be well assured that it did not compare in size with the pianos of to-day.

We clip the above from the Marietta Leader of last week.  While we do not doubt the piano referred to, may be the first one taken to Detroit, we are under the impression the writer is mistaken as to its being the first one in Marietta.  There is now in this city, in the possession of Mrs. Margaret Newsom, a piano that has had the reputation of being the first instrument that was brought west of the Alleghenies.  We are told it was taken to Marietta by Col. Lord, and afterward formed one of the attractions in Blennerhassett's mansion.  Upon the breaking up of that historic establishment it passed into the hands of the late Mr. Nathaniel Gates, who acted as private secretary to Blennerhassett, and it was brought to Gallipolis in 1820.  Mr. Gates disposed of the piano to the late General Newsom and it has remained in his family ever since.  Of course it does not compare with the fine instruments of the present day.  The dimensions are as follows:  Length, five feet and two inches; width, one foot and ten inches, and the height is that of the modern instrument.  Its compass is but five octavoes, and it was made in Philadelphia by Charles Albrecht.

Gallipolis Bulletin

Wednesday, May 18, 2011

Letter From California

The Marietta Weekly Leader, April 5, 1887

Reminiscences of Marietta, and Its Surroundings as it Appeared to a Boy Sixty Years Ago.

Magalia, Butte Co., Cal.
March 25, 1887

Editor Leader:

A stray number of your paper fell into my hands a month since, from which I discover the Washington County Pioneer Association, and citizens generally are making preparations for a grand Centennial celebration of the first authorized settlement in the Territory of the Northwest, under the ordinance of 1787.  To commence on the 7th, of April proximo, and continue three days.

In the long list of names as permanent members of the association, I recognize quite a number, that I knew when a boy sixty years ago.  Of course, the greater number of the generation living at that date, having long since passed from earth, while a few still linger upon the shores of time.  It has occurred to me, that a few notes, from one who has wandered far from his native town, might not be wholly uninteresting to your many readers.

My father, a native of Northfield, N. H. came to, and settled in Marietta in 1802.  My eldest brother, whose name appears as Vice President of the association, according to the record in our old family bible (published in 1809) was born in Marietta, Nov. 12th, 1806; and the writer of this was born July 19th, 1815.  My earliest school-boy days, were under the tuition of William Slocum, who taught for a number of years in the "Old Academy" near the large Presbyterian Church, fronting the Muskingum bottom.

Among my school mates were, Dudley and George Morgan Woodbridge, S. P. and George Hildreth, Guss and Jacob Cram, William, Charles, and George Emerson, William Wood, Noah L. Wilson, Furd. Buell, and William Putnam, of Harmar.  Among the girls I remember, Julia Holden, Maria Buck, Martha Wilson, Isabella Green, Mary, Wing, Dodge, and the Ward girls, whose christian names I have forgotten.

Among the old people of the town, I remember, Gen. Rufus Putnam, Gov. Meigs, Henry P. Wilcox, Dudley Woodbridge, Sen., Joseph Holden (Merchant), James Dunn, Samuel P. Hildreth, M.D., John T. Cotton, M.D., Robert Crawford (Merchant), Nahum Ward (Land Agent), John Mills (Banker), Silas Cook (Jailor), and others too numerous to mention.  In Harmar - James M. Whitney (the great steam boat builder), Judge Warner (Court of Common Pleas), and many others that I simply knew by sight.

Great changes are wrought by the ravages of time; not a face among a thousand, that I then knew, would I recognize now.  There are, however, land marks about the town, that time will never change.  There stands the Wilcox Hill, overlooking the "Point" or lower portion of the town.  There is the "Covert Way" - the "Elevated Square," the great high "Mound," with its beautiful ring in the middle of the Old Cemetery - where lies the remains of Gen. Putnam, Commodore Whipple, Gov. Meigs, and many others of the honored dead.  These localities will stand the ravages of time.

Here it was, on the plains of the "Stockaid," where I met my little school mates, and roamed over the play grounds of my childhood; and though sixty years have passed away, the pleasing reminiscences of those happy days still cling to fond memory like the fading shadows of a golden dream.

Allow me to mention a few more names, connected with some incidents that I call to mind, and I will close this letter already too long.

In 1824, on the occasion of the visit of Gen. La Fayette, of Revolutionary memory, to the United States, on his way from New Orleans to Pittsburg, he made a short call at Marietta, which roused the whole town to enthusiasm.  One feature of the visit was to form the Sunday school children in a double column on the green lawn in front of Nahum Ward's palatial residence, while the great General passed down the center of the column, and shook hands with all the children - I remember his grip.

The "Marietta Gazette and American Friend" was the title of a paper published, and edited by Royal Prentiss, at an early day.  I remember the old fashioned puff balls, with which they put the ink on the type, and the great lever which brought down the press.  Another paper entitled The "Minerva Pilot" published, and edited by A. V. D. Joline, was run in opposition to the Gazette; and though the editors were bitter, the devils in each office were friendly, and often exchanged visits.  Jack Brough, who afterwards became Gov. of the State, was then devil, in the Gazette office; and on a visit at the Minerva office, one evening while the paper was being put to press, and the employees absent at supper, he changed two letters in the title of the paper.  So that the entire edition came out the next morning as the "MINERVA LIPOT."  This was more than human nature could bear, and the wrath, and thunders hurled at the Gazette Office for the next few weeks was indeed terrific.

Young Brough, however, kept his distance, and soon went to the Athens College, where the Woodbridge boys, with many others from Marietta finished their education.

Dr. A. K. Stearns, now a resident with his family in Magalia, also received his education at Athens, and is one of the Pioneers of that section.

Wishing all who attend the Centennial a pleasant time, I am,

Respectfully Yours,
Joseph Glines.

Sunday, May 15, 2011

More on the Execution of Bumgardner

The Marietta Register, February 21, 1867

The account of the execution of Hanson Bumgardner issued from the Register Office in an extra, may be found on our first page.  Some points in addition to those furnished by our reporter - we were not present - may be noted.

Rev. W. M. Mullenix, of Whitney Chapel - Methodist Episcopal Church - the spiritual adviser of Bumgardner, was with him every day, for weeks, and constantly and strenuously impressed upon him the importance of a full confession.  On the day before the execution, about 11 o'clock, A.M., Mr. Mullenix told him that he could not hope for salvation if he should not confess, if guilty of the murder of Eubank.  His reply was:  "If I committed that murder I hope God will burn my soul in hell forever."

The counsel for Bumgardner applied to the Governor for a commutation of the death penalty to that of imprisonment in the Penitentiary for life.  About 5 o'clock on the evening previous to the execution, Sheriff Hicks received a dispatch from the Governor, refusing to commute the sentence.

While Bumgardner was standing on the trap-door, his arms pinioned, his legs bound together, the hood drawn over his face, the rope adjusted around his neck, everything in readiness for his last moment, Mr. Mullenix whispered to him:

"Hanson, did you murder Eubank?"

"I did not!"

The Sheriff then asked:

"Are you ready, Hanson?"

"Yes sir, I am."

The drop fell, the neck was dislocated, and - the body was taken down after hanging 28 minutes, and immediately sent to the Harmar depot, on the way to Harrison county, West Va.

The medical attendants were Drs. Hart & Bartlett, (B. F. Hart and J. C. Bartlett), and Dr. S. D. Hart, Coroner.  The arrangements of Sheriff J. A. Hicks were admirable.  He was chiefly assisted by his brother, Thomas Hicks, Deputy Sheriff.  J. M. Johnson, Sheriff of Athens county, and Capt. Levi Barber, of Harmar, also rendered assistance.  Col. W. B. Mason, County Treasurer, and Capt. Geo. Benedict, Commissioner, were present, besides those before named, also reporters for the press, and Constable Davis, of Hockingport, who pursued Bumgardner, and was the means of his arrest.  The Sheriff had a guard of ten or fifteen men, outside of the jail.

The enclosure in which the execution took place, was on the easterly side of the jail, covering the side door - was 17 ft. high.  The scaffold was 12 ft. long by 7 wide, and 4-1/2 ft. high - double trap-door in the centre - and with the gallows, was built by Maj. Darius Towsley.

Comparatively few people assembled outside the jail.  Except the guard, there was at no time, we think, over one hundred and fifty, and very few of that number were citizens of town.  They were very quiet.

Remarks.  If any think Bumgardner may have suffered unjustly, such thoughts can as well be dismissed at once.  His declarations of innocence were on purely technical grounds - first, that he did not actually do the killing, although connected for the robbery of the murdered man, with those who did do it, (as he said,) he himself concealing it, and appropriating to his own use all the murdered man's property then with him; second, that the murder was (as he said) in West Virginia, hence, as he called it, "a very unjust thing" that he should suffer under the laws of Ohio.  According to his own story, Bumgardner was guilty of the crime of murder, both in law and in morals.  And there is no evidence whatever that leads to a reasonable suspicion that any person was connected with him in the murder, or that it was not done in Ohio; but the evidence is that he alone did the deed, and did it in Ohio.  This is the belief of all who are best acquainted with the facts - those with him since his trial.  His own word he constantly falsified - his speech at the gallows giving the lie to his protestations "before God" at the time of his sentence.

Bumgardner was a man about six feet tall, and weighed perhaps 180 pounds.  He was physically strong, but morally weak.  He possessed a great deal of nerve - that nerve which could cut off the head of Eubank.  He had very strong affection for his children - would save them from stain as far as possible.  From these points in his character it can be seen why he declared himself an "innocent man."

Saturday, May 14, 2011

The Execution of Hanson Bumgardner

The Marietta Register, February 21, 1867

He Speaks Over an Hour, and Admits his Guilt, but Denies that he Actually Committed the Murder.

The Drop Falls at 20 Minutes Before 2 O'Clock, P.M.

He Died Without a Struggle.

The execution of Hanson Bumgardner, for the murder of John Thomas Eubank, at Hill's Landing, in Belpre township, this county, September 13, 1866, took place to-day - Friday, February 15th, 1867.

The prisoner had appeared considerably broken down for a day or two past, but slept soundly on the night before the execution, and took his meals regularly - had gained ten or fifteen pounds in weight since his sentence, eight weeks ago.

9:40 A.M.  Prisoner dressing; new black suit of broadcloth, not expensive; cleanly shaved; pale, but composed for one in his situation, voice low, manner subdued; conversed with freedom, but not without emotion as to the disposition of his body, which he wished to be buried at Union Church, Harrison county, West Virginia - not in Marietta.  None of his friends present.  Feels as if they have forsaken him.  Appears weak, and walked into his cell, with difficulty, to change his clothes.

10 o'clock.  Still dressing.  Spoke again of his burial; wished it to be near his friends; preferred Union Church because he had a child, father and sister buried there.  Desired that his wife and mother should see his remains - his wife being now at Greenwood Station, N. W. Branch B. & O. R. R., eleven miles from Clarksburg.  A Mr. Rider present agreed to take his remains to his (Bumgardner's) friends.  And on the agreement of Sheriff Hicks to deliver the body to Mr. Rider, the prisoner said:  "May God bless you all."

Sheriff Hicks, and Rev. Mr. Mullenix, his spiritual adviser, came in.  The prisoner thanked all for their kindness, and sat down to write.  He showed considerable emotion when talking of his wife and three little children; but in writing, no tremor or nervousness.  He rested his hopes on the Christian religion - was a Methodist by education.  He desired Mr. Mullenix to go with his body to its burial.

10:30.  prisoner still writing.  parties conversing in the room, but not disturbing the writer, who appeared calm - a hammer sound on the scaffold not disturbing him in the least.

10:55.  Finished writing.  Complains of injustice to him in some of the published reports, but does not justify his own conduct.  Intimates the guilt of others, but said his own sins were pardoned.  Seems to feel hurt that he had been published as a "Bushwhacker."

11:10.  Prisoner said:  "Boys, have any of you got a cigar in your pocket?  I have got in such a way of smoking."  Cigar given him, and he smoked and talked with ease.

11:18.  Sheriff came in, and prisoner gave him the letter he had written - which he read to Sheriff, exhibiting deep emotion, more however, about his family than from fear of death.

11:30.  Reading concluded.  Sheriff withdrew to open the way to the scaffold.  Prisoner put the cigar in his mouth, and seemed the calmest of all in the terrible suspense.

11:35.  Sheriff returns and cuts prisoner's finger nails, who says:  "Now, I can beat you at that.  You ain't afraid of me yet, are you?" - that is, of giving him the knife.

11:45.  Cell doors unlocked that the prisoner might take leave of his fellow-prisoners.  He said to them:  "Boys, my humble thanks for you all.  You all have been good friends to me, God bless you.  God knows your condition - I don't.  My wish is, you all may come to God.  I have been pardoned by him.  You may be unjustly dealt with, but if your peace is made with God, all will be well.  God bless you."

He asked them to sing:
                    "Why should we start
                       And fear to die," &c.,
which they did, the prisoner weeping, after which he kneeled and prayed - for his fellow prisoners and his family, for mercy on his accusers - his own doom being unjust.

11:55.  Prisoner shakes hands with his fellows, and urges repentence and religion upon them, speaking to each separately, and with much emotion.

12:05.  Prisoner is tied, and says:  "If you are going to stay here a minute, I will smoke a little more - if not, I am ready."

12:07.  The dark hood having been put on his head, the prisoner walked to the scaffold, between Sheriff Hicks and Rev. Mr. Mullenix, and sat down - quite calm.  Sheriff read the warrant of death.  Coffin at one end of scaffold.  Prisoner said:

I feel interested to leave a true record behind.  Was born in Pendleton county, Virginia; went from there to Barbour county, then to Harrison county, where I was principally raised, till 19 years old, when I married.  Family respectable.  I am the first one ever charged with crime.  Ought not to have married then - was young and thoughtless.  Had a difficulty with and parted from wife.  Her friends wanted a writing for divorce, which I gave.  Starting point of trouble; began to drink.  Took another woman, brought her to Ohio, intending to marry her, but put it off.  Lived in Belpre.  Was in jail once at Clarksburg on a false charge, but in five days gave bail.  Next, on a spree, was arrested for breaking open a store, but cleared.  Spoke of difficulty at Belpre.  Plead guilty of assault; fined $5 and costs.

Moved to Iowa with this woman.  She died, leaving a child 14 days old, which still lives.  Started to California, was taken by Indians, and kept tied with a raw hide two weeks.  Returned to Virginia, and married present wife in Pocahontas Co., just before the vote taken on secession, day after which left for Kentucky, with his wife.  Left that State with Union forces, when Kirby Smith drove them back.  Started for friends in Virginia, and was captured by Jenkins and carried to Warm Springs; kept a month and two days as a Yankee Spy, and was badly cared for.  Released on taking oath not to go beyond the rebel lines.  Was taken by rebel conscription, but did not take up arms - went on enrolling guard.  Came to Gallia county, Ohio.

Here (Gallia county) in three weeks, became acquainted with John Woods, who caused his downfall.  Last July he went into a wicked plot - ashamed to confess - for counterfeiting, and received $100 counterfeit, and "as purty greenbacks as you ever saw."  September 1st went to Burning Springs, found said Woods, and became one of his companions.  We chloroformed a doctor near Grafton, and robbed him.  Monday, 10th, Eubank was with them, and the plot against Eubank was then laid.  Prisoner was to get him to go for his (B's) family.  Woods was to meet them, chloroform and rob Eubank, and take his team.  No design to murder.  Prisoner agreed to scheme.

Woods, prisoner and confederates met at Parkersburg.  There changed plan.  Prisoner bought Eubank's team, and went with him to Hill's Landing.  Prisoner had skiff ready, and one of the confederates came to the wagon.  They there induced Eubank to cross the river to rob him.  Woods told him there was a dance over the river, and wanted him to go.  Eubank went, taking the chain from the wagon to fasten the skiff with, and he never saw him afterwards.  The men came back and said they believed they had killed Eubank.  Prisoner felt impelled to divulge, said he never had consented to this, but they said if he was going to betray them he should die, too, presenting a revolver.

Prisoner was to take team, they to dispose of body - he knew not how till shown on the trial.  Was to meet them at the mouth of Big Sandy, with team; but went the way on which he was arrested.

Said he was being hung for what he did not personally do, though concerned as above stated, and which was not done in this State - the murder was in Virginia.  I wish all well, but it will not do to hang a man on circumstantial evidence.  "I have become reconciled to my fate, though unjust.  Have told the truth before God.  God bless you all."

12:26.  Prisoner closed.  Dispatch handed to Sheriff, from Bumgardner's brother, saying that he was on the road, and asking body to be shipped, &c.  Prayer by Rev. Mr. Mullenix.  Prisoner affected, and given a glass of water, he drank freely.

1:30.  Prisoner kneels on a chair and prays; "O Lord, I humble myself before thee for the last time.  Comfort me and sustain me.  Lord, it seems hard to suffer this.  Bless me.  If anything I have said is wrong enable me to correct it.  O bless my family and children and comfort them.  lord, bless my enemies.  Sustain me in this hour.  Save me not for anything I have done, but for thy sake.  Amen."

1:33.  Bid Sheriff and all good bye.  Was strong, not nervous or trembling.

1:36.  Stepped on trap door.  Everything adjusted - hood drawn over the face - prisoner standing erect and praying.

1:40.  Trap door fell.  Prisoner shrugged his shoulders, and died.

The execution was in strict accordance with the law.  Sheriff Hicks had his appointments carefully made, and performed his entire dreadful duties with kindness, with deep feeling, but with firmness.

Friday, May 13, 2011

Divorce Mill Grinds

The Daily Register, April 13, 1900

Number of New Cases of Domestic Infelicity on the Appearance Docket in Common Pleas Court.

Thursday afternoon was a busy season for Clerk Trotter in Common Pleas Court, several new cases being filed, among which were a number founded on alleged marital troubles of various kinds.

Susan Nelson seeks a divorce from her husband, Frederick Nelson, on the ground of willful absence for more than three years past, gross neglect of duty, habitual drunkenness and unfaithfulness.  Mary Moore, of Athens county, is named as co-respondent.  The couple were married in Dunham township, May 5th, 1896, and have one child aged three years.  The plaintiff asks for a decree of divorce, custody of the child and reasonable alimony.

Mary A. Milbaugh vs. Jacob Milbaugh is the title of another suit founded on alleged cruelty and neglect of duty.  The couple were married in Marietta, July 6th, 1881, and have one child nine years old.  The plaintiff alleges in her petition that the defendant cursed and threatened to strike and did strike her and ordered her to leave her home.  On April 6th, 1900, she left him and has not lived with him as his wife since that date.  She asks for custody of the child and alimony.

John W. Hill asks separation from his wife, Rosalie Hill, on the ground of willful absence for more than three years.  They were united in marriage, July 18th, 1878, in Wood county, W. Va., and have one child thirteen years of age.

The most sensational suit of the number is that entitled William McGinnis against Frank Stegg, an action for five thousand dollars alleged damages for the alienation of the affections of the plaintiff's wife.  The plaintiff charges in his petition that on January 4th, in certain hotel in this city, the defendant wickedly debauched Flora H. McGinnis, wife of the plaintiff, who has thereby suffered great distress of mind and great shame and dishonor.

Monday, May 2, 2011

School Teachers

The Marietta Intelligencer, January 11, 1844

Mr. Editor:

It is always interesting to glance over the early records of the First Settlers of our country - especially those which relate to their educational system.  Education with them was a business of primary importance - if they failed in this they failed in every thing.  To procure the means for the support of schools, called into exercise their earliest efforts after establishing themselves in their wilderness home.  Their immediate legislation shows how deeply imbued were their minds with the importance of educating all their youth.  Hence as early as 1642, we find the people of the Massachusetts Colony making provisions by law for the support of schools in every town containing fifty families, and soon after, it was enacted that every town containing one hundred families should raise the means for supporting what they called a Grammar school (answering to an Academy among us) in which young men should be fitted for the University.  All this led ultimately to the establishment of the free school system as now known in very many of the States - and how admirably is this system adapted for meeting the demands of our population.  Whoever labors for the extension and advancement of education through the means of our public schools, labors for the best interests of the whole community - for how very large is the proportion of our population who are to receive their entire education in these little Seminaries?

It has been estimated that not more than one in twenty of the entire population of the United States has the advantages of a more extended course of study than the common public school affords.

If the citizens of every township of Washington County, containing one hundred families, with all the advantages they possess beyond those enjoyed by the Pilgrims, were to put forth the same amount of effort in the cause of education as was put forth by our pious ancestors, what might not be achieved here in the business of education!  Soon should we see our Common Schools our best schools, and all our youth in the way of a most thorough intellectual and moral training.  And here it may be stated that at this very time there are in operation three things connected with the advancement of education that can scarcely fail of producing immense good, directly and permanently in every district in the county.

The first to be mentioned, is the thoroughness of examinations to which all, who expect to teach free schools, are obliged to expose themselves.  Your Board of Examiners, I believe, have made a resolution to give in no instance a certificate to any Teacher until by entering with him into a thorough investigation of every branch required to be taught, they are satisfied that he is master of his profession so far as it relates to book knowledge.  This is as it should be - for if there is a failing here - if our Board of Examiners - those upon whose fidelity the interests of our schools so directly depend, are remiss in their duty, we have no remedy.

The next thing to be noticed as tending to the well being of our schools is the very large number of well qualified Female Teachers that are employed to manage them.  There is one consideration that must be, at once, apparent to every one at all conversant with school operations, which proves conclusively the superior excellence of well educated Female Teachers in the business of training the young.  It is this.  Imparting instruction is the female's own appropriate duty - she is so placed by Providence, that it must be so.  The young will ever be under her influence.  No matter what station she may occupy in life - the business of giving direction to the mind's first operations must and will devolve more or less directly upon every female in the land.  When therefore she is employed as a teacher of children, whether in a public or a select school, she is only employing her energies for the better discharge of future duties.  She is upon the highway of her existence - every new power she may develop will come into use in future life - she engages in her work with energy and cheerfulness and is emulous to excel. 

Experience proves that success has attended the efforts of female teachers in our winter as well as summer schools, where there had been failures on the part of young men.  The increased number of female teachers employed at the present time in winter schools, shows that the public mind feels assurance upon this subject, and nothing can be more certain than if suitable compensation were offered to females, we should at once bring into our schools all the talent and energy that could be desired.  I speak of our district schools to a considerable extent.

The third means in operation tending to improve our schools is the general supervision which parents are beginning to exercise over the concerns of the school-room.  To a considerable extent in almost every district there is an attention to the progress of the scholars and an interest in their advancement not hitherto so manifest.  This is as it should be.  The moment that parents take it in hand to see that their children are punctual at school and ascertain that they are studious while there, that moment they give an efficiency to the teachers' efforts that cannot but ultimate in the improvement of our schools.

I cannot close without suggesting one other means of improvement, and it would be gratifying to see it introduced into all our school districts where are a considerable number of pupils over fourteen years of age.  It is that of using in school a well conducted Newspaper.  It would afford admirable reading lessons.  A part from the great amount of valuable information which the readers would gain from it, a habit of reading correctly would be formed.  It would make our youth intelligent upon a great variety of important subjects.  A portion of one day in a week spent by the more advanced pupils in reading the weekly news, would give a zest to all other school duties.  Growing up to be freemen as our young men are, the principles they might gain from thus reading the County paper, would fit them to fill the places in future life which their fathers now occupy, and which must continue to be filled by intelligent freemen. 

Who of our young men at school between the ages of fourteen and twenty have derived knowledge enough without reading a good newspaper to answer the following questions?  What is Civil Liberty?  What is Political Liberty?  What is a Sovereignty?  In whom is the Sovereign power of the United States vested?  What is a Government?  What are the principal forms of Government?  What is a Despotism?  What are the advantages of a Despotism?  What are the evils to which it is liable?  What is an Aristocracy?  What is a Democracy?  What are the advantages of this kind of Government?  To what evils is it liable?  Upon whose consent is the Government of the United States founded?  What is a Constitution?  What is Common Law?  What is Statute Law?  Which is superior, Statute or Common Law?  What is a Corporation?  What is a Charter?  In what is the Legislative power of the United States vested?  What is Legislative power?  What is the object of dividing the Legislative power between two bodies?  For how long a period are our Representatives to Congress elected?  What is the object of having frequent elections?

Yours truly,