Tuesday, April 26, 2011

Rites Held For Victims of Shooting

The Marietta Daily Times, June 19, 1933

Funeral services for Albert Newton, slain Saturday by James Arbor, were conducted Monday afternoon at 2 o'clock at the Dixon Funeral Home, Rev. W. A. Moore officiating.  Burial was made at the Round Bottom Cemetery in Waterford Township.

The funeral of Arbor was conducted Monday morning at 10 o'clock at the same place, Dr. J. A. Holmes officiating.  Burial was made in Oak Grove.

Coroner Fred Jackson, who investigated the dual shooting, that occurred in the apartment of Arbor's wife at 120 Front Street, made an official finding of murder and suicide.  There were no eye witnesses to the tragedy and the coroner affirmed what the police found in their investigation following the shooting.

A note found on Arbor's body indicated that trouble was expected, even premeditated by him.  The note was addressed to Chief Homer O. Wolfe of the police department.  It was written Friday evening at the county infirmary, more than twelve hours before he followed Newton to the apartment.  Text of the note follows:

"Marietta, June 16th.
"Friend Homer:
"I am going to town tomorrow and I have found out for a fact that Newton is still going to the house.  Well, there is something going to happen.  It's just too damned raw for me to swallow as every one knows about it and they know that I am wedged out here and sick and broke.

"I can't get a gun any place and they keep bolts on the door when he is there and just the key turned in the lock when he is not.  One time he slipped out the back door when she let me in the front, but I have not been there for a long time.

"I am going to get in tomorrow.  Her folks think she is o.k.

"Good bye, maybe,

"J. M. A."


Death of George Carny

The Marietta Intelligencer, June 1, 1848

Post Office, Beverly, Ohio,
May 24, 1848.

Dear Sir:  On the 8th of May, inst., a man called George Carny, was drowned at the Beverly dam, on the Muskingum, and was found on the 15th inst.  An inquest was held on the body, and the jury reported no violence perceivable.  Five dollars and sixty-five cts. was found upon his body - no papers of any description found with him.  It is thought best to have his death announced in your paper, and request you to send one copy to some of the editors in Pittsburg, as the man in question got on the steam boat at that place, and probably has some kindred in Pittsburg, and if so this notice might be of some satisfaction to his relatives.

Yours very respectfully,
John Keyhoe, P.M.


Tuesday, April 19, 2011

Camp Putnam

Marietta Intelligencer, May 15, 1861

We copy the following from a letter to the Cleveland Herald from one of the Soldiers at Camp Putnam.

The Camp receives its name from Gen. Rufus Putnam, who was one of the original settlers of Marietta, hence the name is very appropriate.  The Irish feathers scattered on the floor, and the knap sacks hanging around the shanty, and the long tables covered with tin plates, and a hungry soldier standing opposite each one, look so natural, and are becoming so real, that downy beds and carpeted floors and sumptuous tables would be likely to give us all the dyspepsia before our digestive organs could learn the change.  The inhabitants treat the Soldiers with great respect, and spare no pains for their comfort and enjoyment.  They got up a very fine pic-nic for our special benefit, and spread our tables with all the luxuries and delicious fare that the season could produce or the palate desire.

A mutual good feeling and acquaintance are ripening among the citizens and the Camp, and especially between the boys and the fair ones of the place, which will not be likely to be broken up at the dismemberment of this temporary life.  When the hour for drill approaches, a concourse of anxious spectators swarm the seats of the Fair Ground to see the performance of the soldiers, and after drill they shake their sides and often indulge in the genuine horse laugh, when the boys imitate the nations of the pond, as they go sprawling around the ground.

Our drill is regular and the rules very stringent, such as are required to make prompt and energetic soldiers.  Every man knows his post, and the battery is like a magnificent machine, and moves with the greatest celerity and precision at the command of the worthy Colonel James Barnett.



Monday, April 18, 2011

A Card

Marietta Intelligencer, May 8, 1861

Head Quarters, 1st Reg. O. Lt. Artillery
Camp Putnam, Marietta, May 7

The Officers and men composing the 1st Regiment O. Lt. Artillery, now encamped at Marietta, Ohio, desire to express their heart-felt acknowledgements to the ladies of Marietta, who so generously and liberally supplied the soldiers with refreshments and delicacies on the evening of Satuday, May 4th.  None but those who have accustomed themselves to soldier's fare, could properly appreciate so timely a donation.  We subjoin a list of the names of the ladies furnishing the food:

Mrs. Eels
Mrs. D. P. Adams
Mrs. J. Holden
Mrs. Soyez
Mrs. Ewart
Mrs. Emerson
Mrs. Iams
Mrs. Brigham
Mrs. Edgerton
Mrs. Mills
Mrs. Kendrick
Mrs. Clark
Mrs. J. W. Baldwin
Mrs. Thompson

A Card.

Camp Putnam, Head Quarters
C. Lt. Art. Co. A.

Resolved, That we the members of the C. Lt. Art. Co. A. return our most sincere thanks to the ladies of Marietta, who presented us with that most excellent, and delicious can of Tomatoes, and that it is the most earnest wish, that their kind and patriotic deeds may always be fully appreciated, and abundantly rewarded.

J. Hale Sypher, Cor. Sec.
By order of Company A.


Sunday, April 17, 2011

The Silver Greys

Marietta Intelligencer, May 1, 1861

The following is a list of members belonging to Home Guard known as the "Silver Greys":

James Dutton
Thomas Porter
Junia Jennings
Fred Buck
E. W. T. Clark
Lemuel Grimes
Montgomery Sayers
John Skipton
Jacob Middleswart
Joel Deming
W. A. Whittlesey
James Brown
John M. Slocomb
Theodore Scott
G. W. Barker
Isaac Maxon
Thomas Goodman
Levi Bartlett
J. E. Hall
R. T. Miller
L. J. P. Putnam
J. W. L. Brown
Henry Armstrong
William C. McCarty
John Mills
Joseph Jones
J. L. Reckard
T. P. Harshberger
D. R. Sniffin
T. J. Westgate
Isaac Kidd
Hugh Chaney
Mathew Wylie
J. J. Preston
Barker Devol
James Dunn
J. C. Fuller
John Miles
James Posey
William Warren
William West
J. B. Dyar
James Ferguson
W. P. Skinner
Roswell Tenney
Charles Sullivan
John Test
George Greenwood
I. H. Nye
Owen Franks
Philo Doan
D. P. Bosworth
A. M. Shankland
C. Hildreth
William Scott
R. D. Hollister
George Stanley
Robert Johnson
Greyson Medlicott
J. J. Hollister
Elisha Allen
J. B. Mathews
Stephen Alcock
John Richards
A. L. Guitteau
B. F. Stone
D. Atkinson
David Wright
J. R. Tucker
J. M. Eells
Daniel Protsman
R. E. Harte
L. Brigham
S. P. Hildreth
J. A. Tenney

Total  75.

Saturday, April 16, 2011

Defence of Marietta

Marietta Intelligencer, May 1, 1861

1st Regiment of Light Artillery

On the 21st inst., the following dispatch was sent to Columbus from this place:

Marietta, O., April 21, 5 o'clock, P.M.

To Gov. Dennison:  It is rumored that rebel troops are on their way to Parkersburg, Va.  We do not know how much credit to give this report.  It is however reasonable to suppose that Parkersburg, being the terminus of one branch of the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, will be made in any event a base of operations by the rebel military, and that we are in danger of being overrun by foraging parties and perhaps worse events.  We therefore feel that an absolute necessity exists of being at least prepared with a full supply of arms and ammunition, of which we are wholly destitute.  We may also need more troops than can be raised on the border, and experienced drill officers.  We shall at once organize a home guard which we believe it to be of the utmost importance to arm.  We want especially cannon, and as many as we can have.  We think there can be no possible doubt of the existence of an overwhelming necessity for the occupancy of this point and Belpre, opposite Parkersburg at once.  A messenger will leave for Columbus to-night.

[Signed]
A. T. Nye
President of City Council.
Melvin Clarke, of Maj. Hildebrand's Staff.

In response to this message and to the personal application of B. Gates, Esq., the messenger alluded to above, the First Regiment Light Artillery, 3d Brigade, 4th Division of Ohio Volunteer Militia was ordered to Marietta for the defence of this immediate vicinity.  The Regiment consists of six companies, of 20 members each.  The following is a correct list of the officers:

James Barnett, Colonel.
S. B. Sturges, Lieut. Col.
C. S. Gates, Major.
A. Townsend, Quarter Master.
R. Crawford, Quarter Master Sergeant.
E. Sterling, Surgeon.
C. E. Ames, Surgeon's Mate.
W. R. Simmons, Capt. Company A.
J. G. Mack, Capt. Company B.
F. W. Pelton, Capt. Company C.
Percy W. Rice, Capt. Company D.
Louis Heakman, Capt. Company E.
D. Kinney, Jr., Capt. Company F.

The ground selected for their encampment is the Fair Ground, about a mile from the Court House, where they have an excellent place for parade and drill.  The camp has been appropriately named Camp Putnam, after Gen. Rufus Putnam.

This regiment is composed of a fine set of men, thoroughly drilled and skillful in the use of their guns.

Friday, April 15, 2011

The Marietta Blues

Marietta Intelligencer, May 1, 1861

This company left on Monday morning on the Lizzie Martin for Zanesville.  It numbers 110 members, among them some of our most promising young men.  The news of the President's call for troops was received Monday, the 15th.  The company was called together that evening and volunteers solicited.  In three days there were over 100 added to their ranks.  They were drilled every day by Capt. DeBeck, of Cincinnati, son-in-law of Mr. Louis Soyez - a thorough tactician - and make very rapid progress.

There was an assemblage of at least 3000 persons on the Commons, to witness their departure Monday morning.  The Fire Company, and the College Volunteers were in attendance.  A beautiful silk flag - the handiwork of the ladies of the city - was presented to the Company in behalf of the fair donors, by M. Clark, Esq.  His presentation speech was neat and appropriate, and breathed the true spirit of loyalty.  We regret that we cannot give it in full.  Capt. Buell accepted the flag in a few patriotic remarks, pledging his company that it should never be disgraced in their hands.

Then followed the leave-taking, a scene that cannot be described.  Here were fathers and mothers hanging upon the necks of sons in a last long embrace; wives were clinging to their husbands in agonies of distress; brothers bidding adieu to brothers; friend giving friend his farewell greeting.  Scarcely a dry eye was to be seen in the immense crowd.  But the sorrow of parting, though it caused the tears to flow abundantly, was mitigated by the thought that children, kindred, friends, - all were responding to the call of duty, they were going to defend the Government to which we all owe our safety - our very existence.

The Company was ranged on the hurricane deck, and as the boat moved out from the landing, cheer upon cheer arose from the vast assemblage, hats were swung, handkerchiefs waved, and many a "God peed yon," uttered, and the crowd slowly and sadly dispersed.

The commissioned officers are as follows:  Capt., Frank Buell; 1st Lieutenant, D. O'Leary; 2d Lieutenant, W. H. Bisbee; 3d Lieutenant, Thomas Dyer.

The following list is somewhat imperfect, but a corrected list, long expected, has not come to hand, and we can wait no longer:

Frank Buell
E. Corey
Thomas Dyer
Augustus Morris
Augustus Kropp
James Turner
Owen O'Neal
George W. McCadden
Henry Close
John Mahnkin
Henry Henning
Henry Eastman
Dennis O'Leary
Eli P. Boring
Jacob Shaw
J. S. Parker
William H. Bisbee
John Theis
Gordon B. West
W. W. Withrow
Samuel C. Skinner
P. S. Ripley
Peter Scherer
David Craig
Peter L. Conniffe
Herman Kertchner
George Vickers
Guy Barrows
William U. Fuolke
Samuel Tracey
G. W. Devin
William Parker
Joseph Corey
William Robinson
John McCullough
John L. Shaw
W. W. Pixley
Jethro Davis
John Phelps
Absolom Boring
Michael Padden
Charles Strempel
William Bryan
Thomas Daley
R. Starke
John Ranger
Arius Kennedy
Robinson Blaine
John Smith
R. H. Bull
Robert Shires
Stephen P. Collins
Wesley Miner
Lewis Monroe
Reuben L. Nye
George B. Haskins
L. R. Green
Elijah G. Smith
Charles Clogston
John N. Miner
Henry Kellner
Oscar Underwood
T. R. Thorniley
Wallace Hill
Jacob Bower
Daniel Soler
Philly Longfeud
Lafayette Lagrange
Anthony Padden
Theodore G. Field
David Dow
Thomas McNamer
Ordam Snier
George Pixley
Benjamin Bragg
T. W. Terry
Henry Staunton
John Clark
Alvin Tucker
George Coon
Daniel Y. Hill
William Spence
J. Palmer
Daniel Close
William Holden
George W. Ridgway

Thursday, April 14, 2011

Beverly and Waterford Awake!

Marietta Intelligencer, May 1, 1861

Ed. Intelligencer:

The fire is up in Old Waterford!  Saturday evening a call was made to form a company of Home Guards, and 104 enrolled their names immediately, and to-day the number has been increased to nearly 200.  Our town is literally covered with flags.  Yesterday (Sunday) it was suggested that a pole and flag be put up near the locks before the boat came up with Captain Buell's company.  The plan was immediately put into operation, and this morning at 9 o'cl'k, we raised a pole 150 feet high, and run up the stars and stripes, amid the shouts of the assembled multitude.

The ladies volunteered to make the flag, and they did it in double quick time.  The flag is 17 by 56 feet, and was carried down to the pole by a number of ladies, headed by the fife and drum.  All honor the patriotic ladies of Beverly.

About 600 people assembled at the lock to-day to give Captain Buell's company a reception.  As the boat entered the lock the Home Guards, under command of Captain C. R. Barclay, fired a salute, and the Beverly Brass Band struck up Hail Columbia.  As soon as the band ceased playing, the Beverly Vocal Band sung that patriotic and soul stirring son, "My Native Land," in a style that was loudly applauded by the crowd.  After this C. R. Barclay, Esq., made a brief, pertinent, and patriotic address to the company, which was briefly responded to by George P. Buell, Esq., in behalf of the company.  Four young men from Beverly, volunteered to go with Captain Buell's company.  Our old fellow citizen, Col. E. S. McIntosh, bought up all the undershirts and drawers in town, for the use of those who went from here, and Captain Buell's company.  The purse strings of all are open.  There is no party feeling here, but all feel alike for the Union and Liberty.

Old Waterford is waked up, and will do her duty.

P.

Beverly, April 22d, 1861.


Tuesday, April 12, 2011

Enthusiastic Meeting

Marietta Intelligencer, April 24, 1861

A call for a meeting of the citizens of city and county, at the Court House last Wednesday evening, brought together the largest assemblage convened in Marietta for years.  The Court room was crowded to its utmost capacity, and hundreds were unable to effect an entrance.  The beautiful banner belonging to the Union Blues was suspended over the Judge's bench.  Melvin Clarke, Esq., was called to preside.  He made a stirring patriotic speech on taking the chair.

The members of the new Company were called out and on presenting themselves within the bar, were received with rapturous applause.  After a national air by the Young America Band, the meeting adjourned to the green in front of the Court House.  It was then addressed by George P. Buell, Esq., of Cincinnati.  Mr. Buell made a very spirited, rousing speech.  From his former relations with some of the secession leaders, he was able to expose their treasonable schemes, and to show them up in no very enviable light.  Though formerly a strong partizan, he now knew no party but the Union party.  He cared not what a man had been, if he was now for sustaining the honor of his country and flag.  He made strong appeals to all to rally to the support of the Government.  His remarks were frequently interrupted by the most enthusiastic cheering.

George M. Woodbridge was next called out, but declined to make a speech.  He, however, introduced John Welch, Esq., of Athens, who spoke eloquently for half an hour in defence of the Union, the Constitution and the Laws.

Mr. Clarke made another little speech, full of patriotic fire and zeal.

In the meantime the cannon boomed forth defiance to the traitors, a large bonfire shed a genial light and warmth on the assembly and the band stirred the soul with "Hail Columbia," "The Star Spangled Banner," and other National airs.  After the speeches, Capt. Buell read the names of those who had enlisted, and invited others to respond to the call for the defence of the country.  Several volunteers offered themselves.  The company then marched through some of the principal streets, headed by the Band, and the citizens quietly dispersed.


Thursday, April 7, 2011

The Putnams in Ohio

The Marietta Register, February 1, 1877

I have noticed from the conversation of others that the different families of Putnams in this part of Ohio, are frequently confused, and this is perhaps not strange in those who have not known the first of the name who came here.

All of the Putnams are descended from John Putnam, who came to America in 1634, and settled in Salem, Mass.  He was from the South of England.  With him came three sons, Thomas, Nathaniel and John, also two brothers younger than himself.  Edward Putnam, grandson of John, in 1733, made a record of eighty-two males of the name, in New England, all of whom were descended from John.

The Ohio Putnams are descended from John through Thomas, but those among us are two distinct families, being descended from General Israel Putnam, and from General Rufus Putnam.  Gen. Israel Putnam, of Revolutionary fame, was the son of Joseph Putnam, son of Thomas, son of John.  He was born January 7th, 1718, and was the eleventh child in a family of twelve.  In 1739, he married Hannah Pope, daughter of John Pope, of Salem.  His second wife was a Mrs. Gardiner.  His family consisted of ten children, four sons and six daughters.

Col. Israel Putnam, Jr.

Col. Israel Putnam, Jr., eldest son of Gen. Israel Putnam, came to Ohio in 1789, and joined the Belpre settlement.  He brought with him two sons, and after clearing and fencing lands for farming purposes he returned to Pomfret in 1790 for the rest of his family.  The Indian War, however, prevented his return to Ohio until after the peace of 1795.  Col Putnam had been Aid-de-Camp to his father during three years of the Revolutionary War.  At the end of that time he retired to his farm in Pomfret, Conn., where he resided until he came to Ohio.  His farm in Belpre lay in the meddle settlement - lots 31 and 32 - between the farm of Nathan Goodale and Charles Green.  He built and resided in what is now known as the Benedict house in Belpre.  He died in Belpre, but I am not able to state at what age.

The children of Col. Israel Putnam were five sons and three daughters.  His sons were Aaron Waldo who settled in Belpre; Israel 3rd, settled in Muskingum township; David settled in Marietta; William Pitt settled in Marietta; George Washington settled in Marietta.  His daughters were Sarah, who married Samuel Thorniley of Marietta; Mary, who married Daniel Mayo of Newport, Ky., and Elizabeth, who married Joel Craig of Newport, Ky. 

Among the descendants of Col. Israel Putnam living among us are Major L. J. P. Putnam, and his sister Mrs. William Devol, children of Israel Putnam 3rd; David Putnam and Douglas Putnam of Harmar, sons of the late David Putnam, Esq.; I. Waldo Putnam of Belpre, son of the late William P. Putnam, and grandson of Aaron Waldo Putnam; Mrs. Col. Augustus Stone of Harmar, Mrs. Rathbone of Barlow, Mrs. Lucy Gilbert of Belpre, daughters of Aaron Waldo Putnam; and Miss Sarah Thorniley of Belpre, daughter of Mrs. Sarah Thorniley.  Other members of the family have removed to different parts of Ohio, and to Tennessee and Missippi.

Dr. William P. Putnam died without children.  His widow married Gen. Edward Tupper and removed to Gallipolis.

George W. Putnam died many years ago.

Gen. Rufus Putnam

In the year 1786, Gen. Benjamin Tupper having been engaged in the survey of the Seven Ranges, on his return to New England, had a conference with Gen. Rufus Putnam, at his home in Rutland, which resulted in the formation of the Ohio Company in 1787.

Gen. Rufus Putnam was appointed Superintendent of Survey for the Company, and came to Marietta April 7, 1788, with forty-eight pioneers, and had charge of the surveys until the lands were distributed among the proprietors.  He was afterwards appointed Surveyor General for the United States, which office he held until the beginning of Jefferson's administration, when Gen. Mansfield was appointed in his place.

Gen. Rufus Putnam was the son of Elisha Putnam, son of Edward, son of Thomas, son of John, consequently was cousin in the second remove from Gen. Israel Putnam.  He was born at Sutton, Mass., April 9th, 1738.  His father died when he was but seven years of age.  At sixteen he was apprenticed to learn the trade of Mill Wright.  His opportunities for acquiring an education were very limited, as the person to whom he was apprenticed regarded it as a matter of little importance.  At this time, however, and subsequently, he obtained what books he could and studied by himself in the evenings, giving his attention chiefly to geography, history and mathematics, and at a later date he studied surveying under Col. Timothy Dwight, the father of President Dwight, of Yale College.

He served in the French and Indian War in 1757 and 1758, and after the war engaged in farming and practiced surveying.  When the Revolutionary War broke out, he joined the army with the rank of Lieutenant-Colonel, and was stationed near Boston, under command of Gen. Washington.  He was then placed in command of the Engineer Corps, and it was under his direction that Dorchester heights were fortified.  The position taken then gave our army control of Boston, and in consequence the British retired to New York. 

August 1776, Congress appointed him Engineer with rank of Colonel.  He afterwards resigned this position and raised a Regiment in Massachusetts, of which he was Colonel.  With this Regiment he joined the Northern army under Gates, and was with that army at the surrender of Burgoyne.  In January 1783, he received his Commission of Brigadier General.

After the war was ended, Gen. Putnam gave much time and attention to the matter of obtaining grants of land from Congress for the officers and soldiers of the late army.  He aided in the movements to suppress Shay's rebellion in 1787, and served in the General Assembly two sessions as member from the town of Rutland.

At one time, previous to the War of Revolution, Gen. Israel Putnam and Gen. Rufus Putnam were engaged in the exploration and survey of lands in the Floridas with a view to colonization, but this scheme failed, though at the time, it created a great deal of interest in New England.

In April 1761, Rufus Putnam married Elizabeth Ayers, of Brookfield.  Mrs. Putnam died the same year, and he again married in 1765, Persis Rice, of Westboro.  His family consisted of two sons and six daughters.  The sons were William Rufus, who resided in Marietta, and was the father of our fellow citizen, Col. William R. Putnam.  Edwin, who settled in Putnam, and who had three sons and two daughters.  The daughters of Rufus Putnam were Susannah, married Christopher Burlingame of Harmar; Abigail, married William Browning of Belpre; Persis, married Perley Howe of Belpre; Martha, married Benjamin Tupper of Putnam; Catharine, married Ebenezer Buckingham of Putnam; Elizabeth was not married.

Gen. Putnam resided in the house on the Stockade, since known as the residence of Judge Arius Nye.  He died there in May 1824, at the age of 87 years.

Marietta, January 24, 1877.

A. T. N.

Monday, April 4, 2011

The Washington County School Association

Marietta Intelligencer, May 30, 1844

Met at the Methodist Meeting House in Barlow on Tuesday the 30th day of April A.D. 1844.  Mr. William Slocomb President, Mr. E. B. Perkins Vice President.

The Association was opened with prayer by the President.

After the reading of the minutes of the former meeting of the Association, the Constitution was read, and seven new members were added.

An address was then delivered by Mr. Joseph F. Tuttle.

On motion, the following question was taken up for discussion.  "How can our free school system of education be made best to subserve the interests of a free people."

Mr. Perkins referred to the great number of persons in our Country who could not read.  What kind of voters will they make?  Will they think for themselves?  Will they not become mere tools in the hands of those who are heretical in religion or politics?  It is very easy for designing men to operate upon them.  Have our republican interests been subserved by the influence on our elections exerted by that rambling, uneducated population which has often swarmed about our public works?  Is it safe to trust the destinies of our country with such men? 

In the upper part of Baltimore, at a certain time, vice had gained such an ascendancy, that it was almost impossible to counteract it.  An attempt was made, however, and the plan was to raise funds for the establishment of schools open to all children without charge.  There was an old miser in the city, possessed of very large property there, to whom the subscription paper was presented with the hope of getting a little from him.  He subscribed a very large amount.  Astonishment was expressed, that he should have acted so inconsistently with his character.  "Ah," said he, "you don't understand me.  It is a great deal cheaper for me to keep those children in school, than to keep them destroying my property."

A Sunday School was being started in a certain part of Marietta.  Many of the children were in want of clothes, particularly the children of a certain drunken father.  The ladies expressed an unwillingness to furnish them, apprehending that the clothes furnished might be pawned for rum.  It was suggested to them that the cost of clothing those children now, would bear no comparison with the cost to the community of five drunkards growing up in place of their father.  The hint was taken, and the objects of their charity are children of promise.

Mr. L. Louis had bestowed attention on this subject for a long time.  The gentlemen of this place seem a little backward.  There are men in Barlow able to discuss any subject.  Ours is a democratic government.  It is doing the best it can for schools, but expects the people of the districts to do something for themselves.  They do not do it. 

Who are our teachers?  Many are persons thrown out of other employment.  Many teach to live a little easier.  Many take this method of forming agreeable acquaintances.  Now the government requires teachers to be qualified.  But the School Examiners can require only reading, writing, and a little arithmetic, also a good moral character, but it is very easy to get a certificate to that effect from some interested person.  One power should be given to the Examiners, to ask the teacher whether he knows the ten commandments, particularly that which says, Honor thy father and mother.  This means that we should honor those who are older than ourselves.  Let the Examiners go into the school and see whether there is any respect for the teacher, and whether he has any for himself. 

Who are our teachers?  Why Bill teaches this school, Tom that, and Dick the other.  The truth is, persons who have never learned to obey, and unable to command.  The true remedy is teachers schools where they may learn to respect themselves.  There should be school meetings, also, in every town.  Another evil is, that men have often been appointed Directors, who hardly knew how to read or write.  Sometimes one out of the three takes the responsibility and appoints the teacher to suit himself, one of his own religion or politics, or one who suits his convenience, or some cousin, brother-in-law, or son-in-law that is to be.  To remedy these evils, let some one be appointed to visit the schools - to stay in each one whole day from morning to night.

Wednesday morning.  Met according to adjournment, prayer by Rev. Mr. Edwards.  The minutes of the last meeting were read.  The discussion of the question raised last evening was continued.  Mr. Perkins said that the first object was to bring the children into the schools.  Mr. Louis had spoken in regard to the qualifications of teachers.  Another principal object was to exert the right kind of influence in school.  The business of instruction is not merely the attainment of knowledge, but the acquirement of such principles as will qualify our youth to become good citizens.  Let any one ask himself which he would employ, the man of knowledge without principle, or the man of integrity with less knowledge?  Knowledge without integrity, instead of securing, rather diminishes our confidence.  Our political men should be honest.  The want of political honesty is the cause of so many becoming the tools of party.  If children were taught to do right, they would act right when they become men.  The object of schools is to secure the good of our country.  Let the scholars then be taught honesty. 

The Bible is the great source of moral principles.  A certain infidel taught his children the Bible and gave as a reason, that his philosophy would answer for men, but not for women and children.  Ethan Allen had filled his daughter's mind with his infidel sentiments.  When she lay on the bed of death, she asked her father solemnly whether she should now believe him, or her mother (who was a pious woman).  He answered, "Believe your mother."  The Bible should be made the standard of all moral principles.  No other book, or system of morality is calculated to make men just and good in all their social relations.  We ought to require every teacher to make it the text book of moral culture.  The teacher refusing to do this, would be a wolf in the sheepfold.

Mr. James Lawton.  There are many difficulties connected with schools.  they are not so much with the teachers as with the parents.  One difficulty is in getting the children out to school.  Some do not go, when the whole bill is paid. Another is that parents expect too much from teachers.  Unless they have a proper idea of what the teacher can do, the common school can not prosper.  It has been said that men ought to be educated for teachers.  But would there not be danger of these teachers becoming careless?  Many young men in the country who take schools, do the very best they can.  Another difficulty is, when the children are brought into school, how to make them study.  Would like to hear expressions of opinion in regard to the following points.  How far emulation may be encouraged without injury?  How to prevent time from being lost in schools?  How far the authority of the teacher extends?  Whether during school hours only?  Whether the manners of children can be regulated?  have known children after going to school a few days, become boisterous.  Moral culture is indeed a great object.  Lecturing in schools on moral subjects might be a proper course.

Mr. Slocomb.  One way in which people might raise the standard of moral excellence, would be to recommend only suitable persons for teachers.  A certain man came to the Examiners with a full recommendation of moral character signed by one of the trustees of the township.  He was found capable of teaching reading, writing and arithmetic.  We gave him a certificate to that effect.  We afterwards learned that he was grossly immoral.  The man had been constable, and failed in his duty.  His bondsmen had paid $60 for him, and they gave him the school, on condition that he would let them have the money.  The truth is, any man our of the penitentiary can get a certificate of good moral character.

I am glad to hear the remarks on the Bible as a school book.  There is a disposition larking through our country to exclude the Bible from school.  Before I would give a certificate to a man who does not believe the Bible, I would have my hand cut off.  He who does not make the Bible his text book of morality is not fit to teach.  In New York City, 7th Ward there was an attempt made to exclude the Bible from common schools.  This brought out an expression from Jews of their book.  They alleged that in proportion as the Bible was used, the rights of the Jews were protected. 

In regard to the jurisdiction of the teacher, if it is confined to the school room, there will probably be confusion in the school.  When I was a scholar 10 years old, our people, after rejecting a teacher who was too high in his charges, hired another at $5 per month.  We soon found we had not got Deacon Leland.  We became rather nosy one day.  The teacher expostulated with us, and said if we would keep still in school, we might do as we pleased, when out of it.  Perfect stillness ensued.  School over, the boys rushed out and commenced making snow balls.  When each one was provided with ten or a dozen, there was a general assault upon the teacher, and whatever was the former color of his coat, before he reached home, it was perfectly white.  I think the teacher's jurisdiction should extend to the moral conduct of scholars out of school, as for instance to the case of profane searing, even when uttered before parents.

Rev. Mr. Edwards.  The question allows the widest range.  It has often been remarked that intelligence and morality are the foundation of all our happiness.  The common school has in view both.  The schools must be sustained by the Government or the people, or both of them.  In Prussia, the government educates the children under a certain age.  Other States leave it to the people.  Others unite both systems, as for instance our own.  Our system must flourish just in proportion to the amount of interest awakened.  The means employed by this Association would be valuable, if people would turn out.  Teachers might do much by lecturing on the sciences.  Parents then might turn out themselves.  A prime object should be the thorough cultivation of the heart.  Parents wish the whole man developed.  Those interested in the welfare of their children will wish as much for the cultivation of the immortal minds of their children, as to leave them gold.  It has been sometimes objected that the Bible is a sectarian book.  Strange.  Take away the Bible, and all restraint is taken away.  The common school teacher should divert the attention of his pupils to the Bible.

The teacher's is a very responsible charge.  He impresses his own character on that of his scholars.  I would not under any consideration, have any friend brought up under the influence of a pestiferous teacher.  Certificates of moral character ought to be produced from responsible persons, well known, or the teacher should be well known himself.

Mr. Jesse Lawton.  Most of our disorders in school arise from disorders out of doors.  The efforts of the teacher are not seconded at home.  The child often goes to school with a determination to disobey.  i never had a child flogged at school but what he deserved it.  The teacher should be expected to govern, and to govern well.  I can tell when a certain school is out a miles and a half from my home.  I like to see children play, but they can play without being heard all over the county.  Sometimes in school, the teacher cannot hear himself think.  Occasionally there is wrestling and tumbling in the school house during recess.  This is wrong.  I think the authority of the teacher should extend beyond the usual school hours, and his jurisdiction should regard the moral character of his pupils out of school.

William D. Emerson.  Emulation as a controlling influence, has been referred to.  This is a natural passion, and can be safely used, when not abused.  But it should be made to extend to moral as well as intellectual excellence.  Still, there are higher motives.  Why not learn children to be satisfied with the pleasure they receive from the rational exercise of their faculties?  Why not teach them to act from that highest of all motives, a sense of duty?

Rev. J. Holmes.  How shall the teacher ascertain what is the conduct of his pupils out of school?  I believe there is a danger in operating too much by a certain class of motives.  It was remarked by one connected with Dartmouth College, that those who had taken the first parts in college did not succeed the best in after life.  He recommended that the same motives should be presented to the mind during its training at schools or colleges, that are brought to bear upon it in the community at large.  I have some objection to the plan of teaching entirely by classes.  The teacher must exercise his discretion as to individuals.  Some minds need no excitement, others do.  Mr. Holmes related several instances of young persons whose minds were broken down by over excitement.  There are two classes of persons to be considered, Parents and Teachers.  The parents are more to blame than the teachers.  Good scholars are good children at home.  Teachers are peculiarly situated in this country.  Schools are often small.  People often refuse to pay a female teacher $2 per week, they must have one at 62-1/2 cents.  But is one who will teach for such wages really prepared to teach even reading, writing and arithmetic?  Such persons have no motive to qualify themselves.  Those well qualified are certain what they do know.  He related some instances to show the propriety and usefulness of opening school with prayer.

Mr. Deming.  The evils of our school system are attributed by many to the teachers.  The real defect is in the moral sense of the community.  There is want of interest manifested in behalf of the teacher.  Strong objections are not unfrequently made to the use of the Bible, and of prayer in school.  Sometimes these things are made a test.  The moral standard of the community must be raised.  One of the first steps is to be taken by the Board of Examiners.  What shall constitute a good moral character?  Mr. Webster thinks there is no true charity that is not founded on the Bible.  If there is a want of order in our schools, the blame must lay between the teacher and the people.  But we must change for the better by degrees.  People must learn by example.

Mr. Perkins.  Mr. D. is not aware of the difficulty the Board of Examiners have in ascertaining the moral character of an applicant.  We invariably ask him concerning his belief in a God, and his word, in regard to swearing, the Sabbath, &c.; and require an answer.  Men of no principle will tell untruths.  The only way to effect the object is by the visitation of schools.  Without this, it would be better for the Board of Examiners not to enquire at all, but to throw the responsibility on the district.  With regard to Mr. Holmes' question, the teacher is not bound to exercise any inquisitorial power.  In regard to prayer in school, I will relate an anecdote to the purpose.  A young lady began her school with that practice.  The Directors objected.  They could not have the time of school taken up in that manner.  "Very well," said the teacher.  "I will begin school fifteen minutes earlier, and use my own time."  A young man took charge of a notoriously troublesome school, half the quarter had expired, and no prayer in school offered.  He then considered the subject, confessed his deficiency to his scholars, and entered upon the regular discharge of his duty.  The consequence of this, was the reform of the school.

Mr. Louis.  The great fault is with parents.  The teacher ought to send the parent to school himself.  How is swearing in school to be remedied?  Do children invent oaths?  No.  They bring them from home, and inoculate them.  Sometimes the scholars have to teach the master.  Law and fixed law is necessary to the government of school.  The Bible would make the best statute book.  What do you think of teachers dressing in ladies bonnets during recess, and encouraging the writing of billet-doux?  The statute does not prescribe anything of this sort.  Teachers too often take improper liberties.  But how and in what shape shall we use the Bible in our schools?  In Prussia, it is used as a reading book.  In this democratic country, how shall the teacher who is hired for 62-1/2 cents per week, to be paid in potatoes and pork, set about teaching the Bible?  First regulate the teachers: have them well qualified; let the directors condescend to call the district together, and then have an examination; let no teacher receive the public money until visited by the Board of Examiners, and certified to be perfectly qualified.  Many very learned men have no knowledge of human nature, and no power of imparting their knowledge.  Most of our teachers are very young; 90 out of 100 do not know the ten commandments.  There is too little respect shown to parents and to age. The youngster says he knows more than his father ever knew.  He talks about the old man and the old woman.  I would therefore propose the following resolution:

Resolved, That the President hereby is required to request the Legislature of this State at their next meeting, in behalf of the Washington County School Association, to enact a law, to have the Directors of every School District in the State, that now is, or hereafter may be established, to be put up in every school house, a blackboard on which shall be inscribed in large white letters, the ten commandments.

The resolution having been seconded, was laid on the table.

Mr. Slocomb.  I have uniformly made the Bible a reading book.  I have made such selections as the history of Joseph, etc.  Have used the Bible as a means of discipline.  A scholar is called out for lying.  I ask the school whether lying is contrary to the Bible, and tell them to study it, and bring passages from it in relation to lying the next morning to the class.  The results of their inquiries will be astonishing.  In regard to praying school, I never ask scholars to rise during worship, but to lean their heads upon the desk.  In this way whispering and playing are prevented.

The question under discussion was then laid on the table.

Marietta Intelligencer, June 6, 1844

The following question was then taken up for discussion.

Ought the legislature of Ohio to fix a higher standard of qualifications for Common School Teachers than that now established?

Mr. Edwards.  The teacher must be adapted to the neighborhood.  There is a difficulty in fixing an universal standard.  For some places it need not be raised.  For a majority of districts, a much higher standard is needed.  At present, fundamental principles are unknown, or not laid clearly and deeply in the mind.  In view of the general state of things, I take the ground that the standard should be raised.  It is important that facts should be adduced in relation to this question.

Mr. Perkins.  The law is extremely defective.  There is no penalty.  The man employed, often teaches beyond his certificate.  The law might be mended in another respect.  The Examiners might be authorized to judge what qualifications should be proper.  This might seem rather arbitrary, but there should be some discretionary power in the Examiners.

Mr. Jesse Lawton.  There is already power enough in the Examiners to require a thorough knowledge of reading, writing and arithmetic.

Mr. Holmes.  If an applicant answers one half, or one quarter of the questions, shall he pass?

Mr. Perkins.  Examiners wish to know how far the community will sustain them in putting a higher construction on the law.  We will go as far as the public will let us.

Mr. Slocomb.  My opinion is that the standard of male, but not of female teachers should be raised.  When a certificate was brought by the applicant, signed by every voter in the district, stating that the teacher is amply qualified, and asking the Examiners to give him a certificate, and all the signers but one made their marks, it is evident they were not fit judges.  The Examiners must be governed by circumstances.  In arithmetic the applicant must understand the rule of three.  There is often a great deficiency in reading.  It is sometimes said, there are not teachers enough, but as silver appears, when shinplasters are excluded, so with teachers.  Cheap teaching, says Dr. Beecher, is buying ignorance at a dear rate.  This man, say the Directors, will do, and we can pay him, somehow.  The teacher must be paid according to his qualifications.  This question was proposed to bring out public sentiment.

Mr. Deming.  The second question grows out of the first.  Has the present standard been come upto?  Teachers ought to understand principles.  How few are qualified to teach writing?  How few understand the principles of reading.  The best teachers are needed where the greatest ignorance prevails.  The standard should be raised.  The districts will be satisfied, until it is raised.

Dr. Nellis.  The certificate requires that the teacher should be able to teach reading, writing and arithmetic.  No law then seems to be needed.  The Examiners ought to have the discretion to say what shall be arithmetic &c.  One man pretended to teach Grammar in six weeks, and said that he had did it in four.

Mr. Ormiston.  No teacher is qualified unless he has gone past the single rule of three.  I believe the standard ought to be raised.  Have taught school some myself, but would like to have the standard raised, because wages would become higher, parents and people would be more interested, and the teacher could then afford to qualify himself.  Now he is offered low wages to be paid in pork, corn and chickens.  I was once offered chickens.  Most schools about here require grammar and geography to be taught.

The association then adjourned till 2 o'clock P.M.

Afternoon May 1.  Met according to adjournment.  Prayer by Rev. Mr. Holmes.  A report was delivered by Mr. L. Tenney on the construction and location of District school houses.

On motion the report was accepted.

It was moved that the report be adopted.

Dr. Nellis.  The walls of the house should be of good height.  The building is larger than we can afford in the country.  The idea of a playground is seldom thought of, but a convenient one ought to be provided.  I see no objection to adopting such a system, though perhaps not carried so far as recommended in that report.

Mr. Holmes.  riding in the course of my labors past an open log house, with oiled paper for windows, I found it a school house.  There is some chance for improvement.

Mr. Perkins.  One suggestion in the report may be adopted.  The separation of the playgrounds.  A few acres would save themselves by preventing the wear and tear of clothes, and would create more pleasant associations.  Boys and girls in certain schools, both go out together.

Mr. Slocomb.  To give the teacher an opportunity to smoke his pipe.

Mr. Perkins.  Good air is very important, also the proper size and height of the house, since the volume of air depends on the size and height.  The house should be tight, and sufficiently large and roomy.  Where the desks and backs of seats come together, disturbance is apt to ensue.

Mr. Tenney.  A skilful carpenter with good firm plank will make the desks steady.  Stated some facts in regard to the quantity of air consumed.

Mr. Demming.  Does not think it necessary that the desks should be single.

Mr. Louis.  A seat under a desk, aside from the shaking, gives a chance for mischief, as pulling hair, &c.  I believe in single desks.  I think the system practicable.  A few years ago it was impracticable to build any kind of a school-house.  Parents could easily send away their children from school to puppet shows.  A great deal of money has lately been saved from whiskey.  I like the plan of play grounds for different sexes.  It is more conducive to good morals.

In Prussia in the country the deacon attends to the church, waiting on the minister &c.  He is generally the teacher, and is in standing, next the minister.  The minister visits the school, day after day.  In towns, the houses are very large, airy, roomy and well fixed.  These are for play, and the sexes are separated on the play ground.  The children are not permitted to write loveletters in order to learn to write.  The school-house is always in a healthy situation.  On Whitsunday, the minister attends to impart religious instruction.

Mr. Tenney.  I would have chairs for seats.  As to pulling hair, it might be prevented by moral means.

Mr. Slocomb.  The common practice is to find the centre of the district for the location of the school house.  But the location should be airy.  I have known the school-house placed almost in a creek.  It has been objected that we cannot afford so large a building, but the truth is, we cannot afford much less.  You must either pay for the physician or the school house.  If it must be small, let it rather be of logs, and not well chinked, and even without oiled paper or old newspapers for window.  I would have two little closets in front for the scholars to put their bread and cheese in.  There is great advantage in having an airy room.  When there is little air, there is little study.  Scholars will grow sleepy.

Mr. Tenney.  The windows might be ventilated by taking out one pane of glass, and putting in a tin ventilator, which always goes around letting air in and out.

Mr. Amlin.  In the county we are not troubled with heated air.  In a new country people feel unable to build convenient school-houses.  I recollect a school house, which had not a pane of glass in it, and the play ground was a thicket of thornbushes.  The teachers corresponded with the houses.

Mr. Jesse Lawton.  Does any one present know how to let in fresh air, and let out heated air?  When houses are already built low, if the windows went up to the ceiling, though only eight feet high, the circulation might be forwarded by pipes through the sides and the floor.  Is not the rule for lighting a house, to have a foot of glass light for every nine superficial feet of room?

Mr. James Lawton.  If the windows were let down from above, and there should be occasion to pass out frequently, would there not be a sufficient circulation?

Mr. Slocomb.  I should not admit, without quarrelling, of scholars going out every five minutes.

Mr. Perkins.  In a small room, it is impossible to keep a supply of fresh air, without a rush.  I would recommend perpendicular pipes, so that the circulation of air may be horizontal.

Mr. Deming.  It is a little ungenerous to rake up complaints against our old school houses.  Have you gone to school houses when there were chinks in the floor, some glass, but no ceiling but the roof?  I see no objection to the desks being double.  I think the first teachers in our country were, as a body, better than they now are.

Mr. Tenney.  Our fathers were well educated and energetic men.  Energetic men were the ones who emigrated to the West.  They built their dwelling houses first, and then made their school houses comfortable.

Mr. Amblin.  The District where I was taught is now provided with a good house and a good teacher; but if Mr. Deming was early provided with good teachers, he was better provided for than I was.

Mr. Slocomb.  Let it not be understood that we despise the early school houses or teachers of this country.  I have said, after visiting New England, of late, that Washington County could compare well with any part of it.

On motion, the report of Mr. Tenney was adopted.

The question last under discussion was again taken up.

Mr. Tenney.  When the people of the State require the raising of the standard of education, the Legislature must act upon it.  In some instances the teacher's influence is to darken the minds of the people.  People in a certain district asked that Philosophy might be taught.  The teacher said he could not teach Philosophy, and it was given up.  It is time our schools were better.  If the teacher could do all the sums, and had them written in a manuscript, he knew all about teaching Arithmetic.  We need to pursue a course of study which will cause principles to be so inwrought into the mind, that if books were done away, the mind itself could originate rules.  Our system of education, our books, &c., are not what they ought to be.  Our Governor alludes to the importance of the Common School System.  It is easy to bring it before the Legislature.

Mr. Louis.  The law is mistaken.  The people restrain the teacher; they are not willing to pay him, and when they do, they pay him in pork.  Is it not wrong for some rich people to send their children to Marietta to get a coat of varnish, while poor men must keep their children at inferior schools at home?  We had a pretty good teacher - we paid him in grindstones.  A young lady wished to study Botany - I reasoned her out of it, and told her she would get married just as well without it.  If we pay teachers well enough, we can have all the branches taught.  Let us encourage female teachers for primary schools.

Mr. Tenney.  We may have misunderstood the power given by the Legislature.  It is a great blessing that the Legislature has secured us Reading, Writing and Arithmetic.  If the failure to get a certificate prevents one from getting a school, the law has some effect.

Mr. Slocomb.  The arguments used against the Legislature's raising the standard of qualifications, would go to destroy the law altogether.  The difficulties of the Board of Examiners are not well understood.  Two years ago, a man came, bringing a certificate of moral character, to be examined.  He was found qualified to teach Reading, Writing and Arithmetic, but not English Grammar or Geography, and received a certificate to that effect.  He reported that he had got a certificate, obtained the school, and opened it.  The scholars soon came home with the word that they knew more than the master.  At first there was a burst of indignation against the Examiners.  At last two of the Directors asked to see the certificate.  "Here it is."  "Ah! you are not authorized to teach any thing beyond reading, writing and arithmetic."  He was dismissed at once.  So if an applicant gets a certificate, people suppose that means every thing, and if they are disappointed, are ready to pull our hair for it. 

Others don't want any interference.  A certain applicant was examined, found not qualified, and refused a certificate.  He went off very mad, and after three or four days came back with an old gentleman, who bade us examine that man, and he would stand by and see fair play.  Very well, said we.  After some questions had been asked and left unanswered, the old gentleman went away through the door, and left it partly open.  I followed him, and he said to me in an under tone, "I have wholly altered my opinion.  Don't send that fellow to us."

I wish the law would define arithmetic.  It has occurred to me that the Districts should determine what branches they want taught.  A gentleman came to be examined.  We decided that he could not teach, being deficient in reading.  He then told to me the circumstances of the case.  There never had been a school in his neighborhood; he had just moved in from Pennsylvania, and was determined to give his children some education.  We then concluded to give him a certificate, presuming that so energetic a character would soon qualify himself.  But this is an extraordinary case.  The Board will go as far as the people will let us.  I hope we shall get our pin-feathers out.

Mr. Holmes.  The law is a good one, but some addition should be made to it.  Geography might be required.  I remember witnessing the examinations by the Hamilton County Board of Examiners, on a certain occasion.  There was a very great contrast between the proficiency shown by a man with a ruffle shirt, and that manifested by a young lady.  Prof. Ray remarked that if the young lady should forget all the ruffle-shirt man knew, she would never miss it.  A temporary certificate was granted him, accompanied with instructions and set lessons.  I think people would sustain the Examiners in raising the standard, provided the Directors would inform the Examiners what branches they wished to be taught.

Mr. Tenney.  In large townships, there might be a gradation of schools.  Females are the persons to instruct schools, for when teachers, they are in the high road of their existence.  It would be better to have shorter schools and better teachers.  There might be a central school for three or four districts, where the higher branches could be taught.

Mr. Perkins.  The fault is not so much in the law as in its execution.  It is well to put the defect in the right place - not in the law, but in the people.  When the people are fairly waked up, the Legislature cannot keep them back.  The greatest defect in the law is in not providing a visitor for common schools.

Mr. Louis.  The moment further authority is given by the Legislature, the people will cease to act.  We can do the business as well as the Legislature.  We must make people understand the necessity of a higher standard.

The question was then laid on the table.

On motion, Mr. Louis had leave to withdraw his resolution.

Adjourned, till 7 o'clock P.M., at the Methodist Meeting house.

Met according to adjournment.  Prayer by Rev. Mr. Farris.

The minutes of the meeting were then read.

On motion, Resolved, That this Association recommend the forming of Town Associations throughout the County, and that they report through their delegates at the next annual meeting of the Association.

The first question discussed was then taken up again, and some interesting remarks were made on the importance of qualifications for governing, by Rev. Mr. Farris, and Mr. Michael Ormiston.  Question then laid on the table.

An address by Rev. T. Wickes, was then read by E. B. Perkins, Esq.

The following motion was then made and seconded:  That we recommend to the Directors and Teachers of schools to introduce and insist on the use of the Bible in their schools.  Discussed by E. B. Perkins, Esq., the President, Mr. W. Ormiston, and then adopted.

On motion, Resolved, That the thanks of the Association be presented to the Trustees of the Methodist and Presbyterian Meeting houses, for the use of their respective houses during this meeting.

On motion, the thanks of the visiting gentlemen were presented to the inhabitants of Barlow for their hospitality during this meeting.

The Association then adjourned.

Wm. D. Emerson, Sec'y.


Sunday, April 3, 2011

First Settlement of Rainbow

The Marietta Register, September 7, 1876

The Muskingum river is the largest and most important tributary emptying into the Ohio within the limits of the State.  It is remarkable for its beauty, and has sometimes been called the "Hudson of the West."  There are various points along the river of peculiar interest, and one of these received the name of Rainbow, from the fact that it is situated in a bend of the river, resembling a rainbow in shape.  It is located in a tract known as "Rainbow Creek Allotment of Donation Lands."  The lower end of this tract is said to begin at Rainbow Creek, five or six miles above Marietta, and extends up the Muskingum several miles to a point nearly opposite the mouth of Bear Creek.  The lands situated in this bend are remarkable for their beauty and fertility, as any person ascending the river may notice.  I have no means of ascertaining when the first improvements were made on these lands, but my impression is that nothing was done until after the "Indian War," which ended in 1795.  The number of lots laid out, included 27 proprietors, some of them, however, never resided on their lands, but lived in Marietta.  Of those who settled on this tract the following is a list, and I suppose the most of them went to Rainbow in 1796:

Ebenezer Nye
Joseph Wood
Jasper Stone
Israel Stone
William Stacey
Abel Mathers
Archibald Lake
William Stacey, Jr.
Simeon Wright
Sardine Stone
Stephen Smith
Joseph Stacey
Andrew Lake
Eleazar Olney

So far as I know the other proprietors never resided in Rainbow.  The following is a list of those who drew lots, but did not reside on them:

Nahum Bent
Ezra Putnam
Eleazar Bullard
C. Burlingame
William Browning
William Dana, Jr.
Edwin Putnam
Jarea Ball
Samuel Browning
Daniel Story
R. J. Meigs
William R. Putnam
Rufus Putnam

Ebenezer Nye removed his family to Rainbow in the Spring of 1796, and Joseph Wood also, and probably Col. Wm. Stacey.  Among the present inhabitants of Rainbow are the descendants of several of these families, viz: Joseph Wood, Wm. Stacey, and Eleazar Olney.  It is much to be regretted that the materials for a history of this settlement were not collected at an earlier period.

Joseph Wood

Joseph Wood was a native of New Jersey.  He came out as far as Pittsburgh in 1785, for the purpose of assisting in the survey of the "seven ranges," but the Indians were so troublesome, the survey was not completed until 1786.  While at Pittsburgh he made an engagement with the proprietors of a large tract of land at Belleville, Virginia, below the mouth of the Big Hocking, to act as their agent in selling the lands.  He resided at Belleville several years in this capacity, and while living there he was married to Miss Margaret Pewtherer, at Farmer's Castle, by Gen. Benjamin Tupper, one of the Judges of the County Court of Quarter Sessions.

When the war commenced he removed to Campus Martius, in Marietta, where he remained until its close in 1795.  In the spring of 1796, he removed to Rainbow, where he began to improve the land which has remained in the family ever since.  He had three sons and one daughter.  Sons - Paulus Emilius, James and Carius Martius.  The last of the sons, Carius Martius, died a short time since.  Miss Agnes Wood is still living, and is a resident of Marietta.

During the administration of Mr. Jefferson, Mr. Wood was appointed "Register of the United States Land Office," at Marietta.  From this office he was removed, after holding it a number of years, during the Administration of Martin Van Buren, I believe, and Chas. D. Flood was appointed in his place.

Mr. Wood was for some years one of the Associate Judges of the Court of Common Pleas.

Archibald Lake

Archibald Lake was a native of Scotland.  He came first to the British Possessions, and from thence to New York.  In 1789, he came to Marietta.  He had three sons - Andrew, Thomas and John.  John died at an early period of the settlement of Rainbow.  Mr. Lake and his two sons settled in Rainbow.  Archibald and Andrew Lake were original proprietors.  Thomas was a mechanic; his name does not appear among those who drew "Donation Lots."  He resided in Rainbow for some time, and then removed to Wesley township, near Plymouth.  Andrew resided in Rainbow until his death.  He has two daughters now living, Mrs. Monette, of Muskingum, and Mrs. Courtland Shepard, of Harmar.

Ebenezer Nye

Ebenezer Nye was a native of Tolland, Connecticut. In the Fall of 1789, he came to Marietta, and resided in Campus Martius until the close of the war.  In the Spring of 1796, he removed to Rainbow, where he resided until his death in 1823.  His farm is now owned by Thomas Ridgway, Esq.

Mr. Nye had six sons - Lewis, Niel, George, Melzer, Nathan and Theodorus, and one daughter, Sarah, who married Azariah Pratt.

Lewis settled in Muskingum county, six miles west of Putnam; George settled on Federal Creek, in Athens county, Niel, Nathan, Melzer and Theodorus settled in Meigs county.  The last of these children, Melzer, died November 7th, 1873, leaving one son and five daughters, all married.

Ebenezer Nye was a minister of the Baptist Church, noted for his piety and excellence of character.

Israel Stone

Israel Stone was born probably in Rutland, Massachusetts, April 15th, 1749, and came to Marietta in 1789, with his son, Sardine Stone.  During the "Indian War," they resided in Belpre, and removed to Rainbow in 1795.  His sons, Sardine and Jasper, were among the original proprietors of Rainbow.  In 1790, Mr. Stone sent for his family, and they arrived in the Autumn of that year, with the family of Gen. Rufus Putnam.  The children of Israel Stone and Lydia Barrett, his wife, were Sardine, Elizabeth, Matilda, Jasper, Lydia, Israel, Augustus, Benjamin Franklin, Christopher Columbus, Polly B., Harriet H., and John B., son of his second wife, Mary Corner, widow of George Corner, and by birth an English lady.

Israel Stone was drowned at Belpre, in his 13th year.  John B. Stone resides in McConnelsville.

Elizabeth was born in 1771.  She married Truman Guthrie, and died in 1858.  Matilda was born in 1772, married Stephen Smith, and died in 1830.  Lydia was born in 1776, married Ezra Hoyt, died in 1859.  Polly, born 1787, married John Dodge, died in 1822.  Harriet, born 1792, married James Knowles, and is still living.  Augustus Stone is now living at an advanced age, and has resided in Marietta or Harmar, since 1790.  He was born in 1780.  Israel Stone died at Rainbow, July 13th, 1808.

Col. William Stacey

Col. William Stacey was a native of Massachusetts, and one of the proprietors of the Ohio Company.  He joined the army, and in 1778 was promoted to the rank of Lieutenant-Colonel, in Col. Ichabod Alden's regiment.  In that year, Col. Alden's regiment was ordered to Cherry Valley, N. Y., for the protection of the inhabitants.  On the 11th of November, an army of 500 Indians entered the settlement undiscovered, and began an attack on the houses outside the Fort.  The attack was so unexpected that the house Col. Stacey occupied was surrounded before he could escape, and he was taken prisoner.  The Indians departed after killing about 40 of the inhabitants, carrying their prisoners with them.  After consultation, it was decided to burn Col. Stacey at the stake.  He was tied, and the fire kindled, when Col. Stacey discovered Brant in the crowd.  Having heard that Brant was a Mason, he made the sign, which was recognized by Brant - and through his influence with the Indians, Col. Stacey was released.  He remained a prisoner four years, however, and was finally exchanged.

His family consisted of his wife, five sons, and a son-in-law.  In 1789, he moved with them to Marietta.  Two of his sons, John and Philemon, joined the settlement at Big Bottom.  At the attack on that place, John was killed and Philemon taken prisoner.  He afterwards died in captivity.  During the war, Col. Stacey lived in a small block house on the banks of the Ohio.

He died at Marietta in 1804, much esteemed by the community.

I had hoped to make this account more complete, but have been unable to obtain the desired information.

Major Olney was an officer in the Revolutionary War.  He had two sons, Columbus and Discovery.  Eleazar Olney had a wife and fourteen children.  These were all residing in Campus Martius during the Indian War.

I have also been unable to obtain the information I desired in relation to Wm. Stacey, Jr., and Joseph Stacey.

A. T. N.