Met at the Methodist Meeting House in Barlow on Tuesday the 30th day of April A.D. 1844. Mr. William Slocomb President, Mr. E. B. Perkins Vice President.
The Association was opened with prayer by the President.
After the reading of the minutes of the former meeting of the Association, the Constitution was read, and seven new members were added.
An address was then delivered by Mr. Joseph F. Tuttle.
On motion, the following question was taken up for discussion. "How can our free school system of education be made best to subserve the interests of a free people."
Mr. Perkins referred to the great number of persons in our Country who could not read. What kind of voters will they make? Will they think for themselves? Will they not become mere tools in the hands of those who are heretical in religion or politics? It is very easy for designing men to operate upon them. Have our republican interests been subserved by the influence on our elections exerted by that rambling, uneducated population which has often swarmed about our public works? Is it safe to trust the destinies of our country with such men?
In the upper part of Baltimore, at a certain time, vice had gained such an ascendancy, that it was almost impossible to counteract it. An attempt was made, however, and the plan was to raise funds for the establishment of schools open to all children without charge. There was an old miser in the city, possessed of very large property there, to whom the subscription paper was presented with the hope of getting a little from him. He subscribed a very large amount. Astonishment was expressed, that he should have acted so inconsistently with his character. "Ah," said he, "you don't understand me. It is a great deal cheaper for me to keep those children in school, than to keep them destroying my property."
A Sunday School was being started in a certain part of Marietta. Many of the children were in want of clothes, particularly the children of a certain drunken father. The ladies expressed an unwillingness to furnish them, apprehending that the clothes furnished might be pawned for rum. It was suggested to them that the cost of clothing those children now, would bear no comparison with the cost to the community of five drunkards growing up in place of their father. The hint was taken, and the objects of their charity are children of promise.
Mr. L. Louis had bestowed attention on this subject for a long time. The gentlemen of this place seem a little backward. There are men in Barlow able to discuss any subject. Ours is a democratic government. It is doing the best it can for schools, but expects the people of the districts to do something for themselves. They do not do it.
Who are our teachers? Many are persons thrown out of other employment. Many teach to live a little easier. Many take this method of forming agreeable acquaintances. Now the government requires teachers to be qualified. But the School Examiners can require only reading, writing, and a little arithmetic, also a good moral character, but it is very easy to get a certificate to that effect from some interested person. One power should be given to the Examiners, to ask the teacher whether he knows the ten commandments, particularly that which says, Honor thy father and mother. This means that we should honor those who are older than ourselves. Let the Examiners go into the school and see whether there is any respect for the teacher, and whether he has any for himself.
Who are our teachers? Why Bill teaches this school, Tom that, and Dick the other. The truth is, persons who have never learned to obey, and unable to command. The true remedy is teachers schools where they may learn to respect themselves. There should be school meetings, also, in every town. Another evil is, that men have often been appointed Directors, who hardly knew how to read or write. Sometimes one out of the three takes the responsibility and appoints the teacher to suit himself, one of his own religion or politics, or one who suits his convenience, or some cousin, brother-in-law, or son-in-law that is to be. To remedy these evils, let some one be appointed to visit the schools - to stay in each one whole day from morning to night.
Wednesday morning. Met according to adjournment, prayer by Rev. Mr. Edwards. The minutes of the last meeting were read. The discussion of the question raised last evening was continued. Mr. Perkins said that the first object was to bring the children into the schools. Mr. Louis had spoken in regard to the qualifications of teachers. Another principal object was to exert the right kind of influence in school. The business of instruction is not merely the attainment of knowledge, but the acquirement of such principles as will qualify our youth to become good citizens. Let any one ask himself which he would employ, the man of knowledge without principle, or the man of integrity with less knowledge? Knowledge without integrity, instead of securing, rather diminishes our confidence. Our political men should be honest. The want of political honesty is the cause of so many becoming the tools of party. If children were taught to do right, they would act right when they become men. The object of schools is to secure the good of our country. Let the scholars then be taught honesty.
The Bible is the great source of moral principles. A certain infidel taught his children the Bible and gave as a reason, that his philosophy would answer for men, but not for women and children. Ethan Allen had filled his daughter's mind with his infidel sentiments. When she lay on the bed of death, she asked her father solemnly whether she should now believe him, or her mother (who was a pious woman). He answered, "Believe your mother." The Bible should be made the standard of all moral principles. No other book, or system of morality is calculated to make men just and good in all their social relations. We ought to require every teacher to make it the text book of moral culture. The teacher refusing to do this, would be a wolf in the sheepfold.
Mr. James Lawton. There are many difficulties connected with schools. they are not so much with the teachers as with the parents. One difficulty is in getting the children out to school. Some do not go, when the whole bill is paid. Another is that parents expect too much from teachers. Unless they have a proper idea of what the teacher can do, the common school can not prosper. It has been said that men ought to be educated for teachers. But would there not be danger of these teachers becoming careless? Many young men in the country who take schools, do the very best they can. Another difficulty is, when the children are brought into school, how to make them study. Would like to hear expressions of opinion in regard to the following points. How far emulation may be encouraged without injury? How to prevent time from being lost in schools? How far the authority of the teacher extends? Whether during school hours only? Whether the manners of children can be regulated? have known children after going to school a few days, become boisterous. Moral culture is indeed a great object. Lecturing in schools on moral subjects might be a proper course.
Mr. Slocomb. One way in which people might raise the standard of moral excellence, would be to recommend only suitable persons for teachers. A certain man came to the Examiners with a full recommendation of moral character signed by one of the trustees of the township. He was found capable of teaching reading, writing and arithmetic. We gave him a certificate to that effect. We afterwards learned that he was grossly immoral. The man had been constable, and failed in his duty. His bondsmen had paid $60 for him, and they gave him the school, on condition that he would let them have the money. The truth is, any man our of the penitentiary can get a certificate of good moral character.
I am glad to hear the remarks on the Bible as a school book. There is a disposition larking through our country to exclude the Bible from school. Before I would give a certificate to a man who does not believe the Bible, I would have my hand cut off. He who does not make the Bible his text book of morality is not fit to teach. In New York City, 7th Ward there was an attempt made to exclude the Bible from common schools. This brought out an expression from Jews of their book. They alleged that in proportion as the Bible was used, the rights of the Jews were protected.
In regard to the jurisdiction of the teacher, if it is confined to the school room, there will probably be confusion in the school. When I was a scholar 10 years old, our people, after rejecting a teacher who was too high in his charges, hired another at $5 per month. We soon found we had not got Deacon Leland. We became rather nosy one day. The teacher expostulated with us, and said if we would keep still in school, we might do as we pleased, when out of it. Perfect stillness ensued. School over, the boys rushed out and commenced making snow balls. When each one was provided with ten or a dozen, there was a general assault upon the teacher, and whatever was the former color of his coat, before he reached home, it was perfectly white. I think the teacher's jurisdiction should extend to the moral conduct of scholars out of school, as for instance to the case of profane searing, even when uttered before parents.
Rev. Mr. Edwards. The question allows the widest range. It has often been remarked that intelligence and morality are the foundation of all our happiness. The common school has in view both. The schools must be sustained by the Government or the people, or both of them. In Prussia, the government educates the children under a certain age. Other States leave it to the people. Others unite both systems, as for instance our own. Our system must flourish just in proportion to the amount of interest awakened. The means employed by this Association would be valuable, if people would turn out. Teachers might do much by lecturing on the sciences. Parents then might turn out themselves. A prime object should be the thorough cultivation of the heart. Parents wish the whole man developed. Those interested in the welfare of their children will wish as much for the cultivation of the immortal minds of their children, as to leave them gold. It has been sometimes objected that the Bible is a sectarian book. Strange. Take away the Bible, and all restraint is taken away. The common school teacher should divert the attention of his pupils to the Bible.
The teacher's is a very responsible charge. He impresses his own character on that of his scholars. I would not under any consideration, have any friend brought up under the influence of a pestiferous teacher. Certificates of moral character ought to be produced from responsible persons, well known, or the teacher should be well known himself.
Mr. Jesse Lawton. Most of our disorders in school arise from disorders out of doors. The efforts of the teacher are not seconded at home. The child often goes to school with a determination to disobey. i never had a child flogged at school but what he deserved it. The teacher should be expected to govern, and to govern well. I can tell when a certain school is out a miles and a half from my home. I like to see children play, but they can play without being heard all over the county. Sometimes in school, the teacher cannot hear himself think. Occasionally there is wrestling and tumbling in the school house during recess. This is wrong. I think the authority of the teacher should extend beyond the usual school hours, and his jurisdiction should regard the moral character of his pupils out of school.
William D. Emerson. Emulation as a controlling influence, has been referred to. This is a natural passion, and can be safely used, when not abused. But it should be made to extend to moral as well as intellectual excellence. Still, there are higher motives. Why not learn children to be satisfied with the pleasure they receive from the rational exercise of their faculties? Why not teach them to act from that highest of all motives, a sense of duty?
Rev. J. Holmes. How shall the teacher ascertain what is the conduct of his pupils out of school? I believe there is a danger in operating too much by a certain class of motives. It was remarked by one connected with Dartmouth College, that those who had taken the first parts in college did not succeed the best in after life. He recommended that the same motives should be presented to the mind during its training at schools or colleges, that are brought to bear upon it in the community at large. I have some objection to the plan of teaching entirely by classes. The teacher must exercise his discretion as to individuals. Some minds need no excitement, others do. Mr. Holmes related several instances of young persons whose minds were broken down by over excitement. There are two classes of persons to be considered, Parents and Teachers. The parents are more to blame than the teachers. Good scholars are good children at home. Teachers are peculiarly situated in this country. Schools are often small. People often refuse to pay a female teacher $2 per week, they must have one at 62-1/2 cents. But is one who will teach for such wages really prepared to teach even reading, writing and arithmetic? Such persons have no motive to qualify themselves. Those well qualified are certain what they do know. He related some instances to show the propriety and usefulness of opening school with prayer.
Mr. Deming. The evils of our school system are attributed by many to the teachers. The real defect is in the moral sense of the community. There is want of interest manifested in behalf of the teacher. Strong objections are not unfrequently made to the use of the Bible, and of prayer in school. Sometimes these things are made a test. The moral standard of the community must be raised. One of the first steps is to be taken by the Board of Examiners. What shall constitute a good moral character? Mr. Webster thinks there is no true charity that is not founded on the Bible. If there is a want of order in our schools, the blame must lay between the teacher and the people. But we must change for the better by degrees. People must learn by example.
Mr. Perkins. Mr. D. is not aware of the difficulty the Board of Examiners have in ascertaining the moral character of an applicant. We invariably ask him concerning his belief in a God, and his word, in regard to swearing, the Sabbath, &c.; and require an answer. Men of no principle will tell untruths. The only way to effect the object is by the visitation of schools. Without this, it would be better for the Board of Examiners not to enquire at all, but to throw the responsibility on the district. With regard to Mr. Holmes' question, the teacher is not bound to exercise any inquisitorial power. In regard to prayer in school, I will relate an anecdote to the purpose. A young lady began her school with that practice. The Directors objected. They could not have the time of school taken up in that manner. "Very well," said the teacher. "I will begin school fifteen minutes earlier, and use my own time." A young man took charge of a notoriously troublesome school, half the quarter had expired, and no prayer in school offered. He then considered the subject, confessed his deficiency to his scholars, and entered upon the regular discharge of his duty. The consequence of this, was the reform of the school.
Mr. Louis. The great fault is with parents. The teacher ought to send the parent to school himself. How is swearing in school to be remedied? Do children invent oaths? No. They bring them from home, and inoculate them. Sometimes the scholars have to teach the master. Law and fixed law is necessary to the government of school. The Bible would make the best statute book. What do you think of teachers dressing in ladies bonnets during recess, and encouraging the writing of billet-doux? The statute does not prescribe anything of this sort. Teachers too often take improper liberties. But how and in what shape shall we use the Bible in our schools? In Prussia, it is used as a reading book. In this democratic country, how shall the teacher who is hired for 62-1/2 cents per week, to be paid in potatoes and pork, set about teaching the Bible? First regulate the teachers: have them well qualified; let the directors condescend to call the district together, and then have an examination; let no teacher receive the public money until visited by the Board of Examiners, and certified to be perfectly qualified. Many very learned men have no knowledge of human nature, and no power of imparting their knowledge. Most of our teachers are very young; 90 out of 100 do not know the ten commandments. There is too little respect shown to parents and to age. The youngster says he knows more than his father ever knew. He talks about the old man and the old woman. I would therefore propose the following resolution:
Resolved, That the President hereby is required to request the Legislature of this State at their next meeting, in behalf of the Washington County School Association, to enact a law, to have the Directors of every School District in the State, that now is, or hereafter may be established, to be put up in every school house, a blackboard on which shall be inscribed in large white letters, the ten commandments.
The resolution having been seconded, was laid on the table.
Mr. Slocomb. I have uniformly made the Bible a reading book. I have made such selections as the history of Joseph, etc. Have used the Bible as a means of discipline. A scholar is called out for lying. I ask the school whether lying is contrary to the Bible, and tell them to study it, and bring passages from it in relation to lying the next morning to the class. The results of their inquiries will be astonishing. In regard to praying school, I never ask scholars to rise during worship, but to lean their heads upon the desk. In this way whispering and playing are prevented.
The question under discussion was then laid on the table.
Marietta Intelligencer, June 6, 1844
The following question was then taken up for discussion.
Ought the legislature of Ohio to fix a higher standard of qualifications for Common School Teachers than that now established?
Mr. Edwards. The teacher must be adapted to the neighborhood. There is a difficulty in fixing an universal standard. For some places it need not be raised. For a majority of districts, a much higher standard is needed. At present, fundamental principles are unknown, or not laid clearly and deeply in the mind. In view of the general state of things, I take the ground that the standard should be raised. It is important that facts should be adduced in relation to this question.
Mr. Perkins. The law is extremely defective. There is no penalty. The man employed, often teaches beyond his certificate. The law might be mended in another respect. The Examiners might be authorized to judge what qualifications should be proper. This might seem rather arbitrary, but there should be some discretionary power in the Examiners.
Mr. Jesse Lawton. There is already power enough in the Examiners to require a thorough knowledge of reading, writing and arithmetic.
Mr. Holmes. If an applicant answers one half, or one quarter of the questions, shall he pass?
Mr. Perkins. Examiners wish to know how far the community will sustain them in putting a higher construction on the law. We will go as far as the public will let us.
Mr. Slocomb. My opinion is that the standard of male, but not of female teachers should be raised. When a certificate was brought by the applicant, signed by every voter in the district, stating that the teacher is amply qualified, and asking the Examiners to give him a certificate, and all the signers but one made their marks, it is evident they were not fit judges. The Examiners must be governed by circumstances. In arithmetic the applicant must understand the rule of three. There is often a great deficiency in reading. It is sometimes said, there are not teachers enough, but as silver appears, when shinplasters are excluded, so with teachers. Cheap teaching, says Dr. Beecher, is buying ignorance at a dear rate. This man, say the Directors, will do, and we can pay him, somehow. The teacher must be paid according to his qualifications. This question was proposed to bring out public sentiment.
Mr. Deming. The second question grows out of the first. Has the present standard been come upto? Teachers ought to understand principles. How few are qualified to teach writing? How few understand the principles of reading. The best teachers are needed where the greatest ignorance prevails. The standard should be raised. The districts will be satisfied, until it is raised.
Dr. Nellis. The certificate requires that the teacher should be able to teach reading, writing and arithmetic. No law then seems to be needed. The Examiners ought to have the discretion to say what shall be arithmetic &c. One man pretended to teach Grammar in six weeks, and said that he had did it in four.
Mr. Ormiston. No teacher is qualified unless he has gone past the single rule of three. I believe the standard ought to be raised. Have taught school some myself, but would like to have the standard raised, because wages would become higher, parents and people would be more interested, and the teacher could then afford to qualify himself. Now he is offered low wages to be paid in pork, corn and chickens. I was once offered chickens. Most schools about here require grammar and geography to be taught.
The association then adjourned till 2 o'clock P.M.
Afternoon May 1. Met according to adjournment. Prayer by Rev. Mr. Holmes. A report was delivered by Mr. L. Tenney on the construction and location of District school houses.
On motion the report was accepted.
It was moved that the report be adopted.
Dr. Nellis. The walls of the house should be of good height. The building is larger than we can afford in the country. The idea of a playground is seldom thought of, but a convenient one ought to be provided. I see no objection to adopting such a system, though perhaps not carried so far as recommended in that report.
Mr. Holmes. riding in the course of my labors past an open log house, with oiled paper for windows, I found it a school house. There is some chance for improvement.
Mr. Perkins. One suggestion in the report may be adopted. The separation of the playgrounds. A few acres would save themselves by preventing the wear and tear of clothes, and would create more pleasant associations. Boys and girls in certain schools, both go out together.
Mr. Slocomb. To give the teacher an opportunity to smoke his pipe.
Mr. Perkins. Good air is very important, also the proper size and height of the house, since the volume of air depends on the size and height. The house should be tight, and sufficiently large and roomy. Where the desks and backs of seats come together, disturbance is apt to ensue.
Mr. Tenney. A skilful carpenter with good firm plank will make the desks steady. Stated some facts in regard to the quantity of air consumed.
Mr. Demming. Does not think it necessary that the desks should be single.
Mr. Louis. A seat under a desk, aside from the shaking, gives a chance for mischief, as pulling hair, &c. I believe in single desks. I think the system practicable. A few years ago it was impracticable to build any kind of a school-house. Parents could easily send away their children from school to puppet shows. A great deal of money has lately been saved from whiskey. I like the plan of play grounds for different sexes. It is more conducive to good morals.
In Prussia in the country the deacon attends to the church, waiting on the minister &c. He is generally the teacher, and is in standing, next the minister. The minister visits the school, day after day. In towns, the houses are very large, airy, roomy and well fixed. These are for play, and the sexes are separated on the play ground. The children are not permitted to write loveletters in order to learn to write. The school-house is always in a healthy situation. On Whitsunday, the minister attends to impart religious instruction.
Mr. Tenney. I would have chairs for seats. As to pulling hair, it might be prevented by moral means.
Mr. Slocomb. The common practice is to find the centre of the district for the location of the school house. But the location should be airy. I have known the school-house placed almost in a creek. It has been objected that we cannot afford so large a building, but the truth is, we cannot afford much less. You must either pay for the physician or the school house. If it must be small, let it rather be of logs, and not well chinked, and even without oiled paper or old newspapers for window. I would have two little closets in front for the scholars to put their bread and cheese in. There is great advantage in having an airy room. When there is little air, there is little study. Scholars will grow sleepy.
Mr. Tenney. The windows might be ventilated by taking out one pane of glass, and putting in a tin ventilator, which always goes around letting air in and out.
Mr. Amlin. In the county we are not troubled with heated air. In a new country people feel unable to build convenient school-houses. I recollect a school house, which had not a pane of glass in it, and the play ground was a thicket of thornbushes. The teachers corresponded with the houses.
Mr. Jesse Lawton. Does any one present know how to let in fresh air, and let out heated air? When houses are already built low, if the windows went up to the ceiling, though only eight feet high, the circulation might be forwarded by pipes through the sides and the floor. Is not the rule for lighting a house, to have a foot of glass light for every nine superficial feet of room?
Mr. James Lawton. If the windows were let down from above, and there should be occasion to pass out frequently, would there not be a sufficient circulation?
Mr. Slocomb. I should not admit, without quarrelling, of scholars going out every five minutes.
Mr. Perkins. In a small room, it is impossible to keep a supply of fresh air, without a rush. I would recommend perpendicular pipes, so that the circulation of air may be horizontal.
Mr. Deming. It is a little ungenerous to rake up complaints against our old school houses. Have you gone to school houses when there were chinks in the floor, some glass, but no ceiling but the roof? I see no objection to the desks being double. I think the first teachers in our country were, as a body, better than they now are.
Mr. Tenney. Our fathers were well educated and energetic men. Energetic men were the ones who emigrated to the West. They built their dwelling houses first, and then made their school houses comfortable.
Mr. Amblin. The District where I was taught is now provided with a good house and a good teacher; but if Mr. Deming was early provided with good teachers, he was better provided for than I was.
Mr. Slocomb. Let it not be understood that we despise the early school houses or teachers of this country. I have said, after visiting New England, of late, that Washington County could compare well with any part of it.
On motion, the report of Mr. Tenney was adopted.
The question last under discussion was again taken up.
Mr. Tenney. When the people of the State require the raising of the standard of education, the Legislature must act upon it. In some instances the teacher's influence is to darken the minds of the people. People in a certain district asked that Philosophy might be taught. The teacher said he could not teach Philosophy, and it was given up. It is time our schools were better. If the teacher could do all the sums, and had them written in a manuscript, he knew all about teaching Arithmetic. We need to pursue a course of study which will cause principles to be so inwrought into the mind, that if books were done away, the mind itself could originate rules. Our system of education, our books, &c., are not what they ought to be. Our Governor alludes to the importance of the Common School System. It is easy to bring it before the Legislature.
Mr. Louis. The law is mistaken. The people restrain the teacher; they are not willing to pay him, and when they do, they pay him in pork. Is it not wrong for some rich people to send their children to Marietta to get a coat of varnish, while poor men must keep their children at inferior schools at home? We had a pretty good teacher - we paid him in grindstones. A young lady wished to study Botany - I reasoned her out of it, and told her she would get married just as well without it. If we pay teachers well enough, we can have all the branches taught. Let us encourage female teachers for primary schools.
Mr. Tenney. We may have misunderstood the power given by the Legislature. It is a great blessing that the Legislature has secured us Reading, Writing and Arithmetic. If the failure to get a certificate prevents one from getting a school, the law has some effect.
Mr. Slocomb. The arguments used against the Legislature's raising the standard of qualifications, would go to destroy the law altogether. The difficulties of the Board of Examiners are not well understood. Two years ago, a man came, bringing a certificate of moral character, to be examined. He was found qualified to teach Reading, Writing and Arithmetic, but not English Grammar or Geography, and received a certificate to that effect. He reported that he had got a certificate, obtained the school, and opened it. The scholars soon came home with the word that they knew more than the master. At first there was a burst of indignation against the Examiners. At last two of the Directors asked to see the certificate. "Here it is." "Ah! you are not authorized to teach any thing beyond reading, writing and arithmetic." He was dismissed at once. So if an applicant gets a certificate, people suppose that means every thing, and if they are disappointed, are ready to pull our hair for it.
Others don't want any interference. A certain applicant was examined, found not qualified, and refused a certificate. He went off very mad, and after three or four days came back with an old gentleman, who bade us examine that man, and he would stand by and see fair play. Very well, said we. After some questions had been asked and left unanswered, the old gentleman went away through the door, and left it partly open. I followed him, and he said to me in an under tone, "I have wholly altered my opinion. Don't send that fellow to us."
I wish the law would define arithmetic. It has occurred to me that the Districts should determine what branches they want taught. A gentleman came to be examined. We decided that he could not teach, being deficient in reading. He then told to me the circumstances of the case. There never had been a school in his neighborhood; he had just moved in from Pennsylvania, and was determined to give his children some education. We then concluded to give him a certificate, presuming that so energetic a character would soon qualify himself. But this is an extraordinary case. The Board will go as far as the people will let us. I hope we shall get our pin-feathers out.
Mr. Holmes. The law is a good one, but some addition should be made to it. Geography might be required. I remember witnessing the examinations by the Hamilton County Board of Examiners, on a certain occasion. There was a very great contrast between the proficiency shown by a man with a ruffle shirt, and that manifested by a young lady. Prof. Ray remarked that if the young lady should forget all the ruffle-shirt man knew, she would never miss it. A temporary certificate was granted him, accompanied with instructions and set lessons. I think people would sustain the Examiners in raising the standard, provided the Directors would inform the Examiners what branches they wished to be taught.
Mr. Tenney. In large townships, there might be a gradation of schools. Females are the persons to instruct schools, for when teachers, they are in the high road of their existence. It would be better to have shorter schools and better teachers. There might be a central school for three or four districts, where the higher branches could be taught.
Mr. Perkins. The fault is not so much in the law as in its execution. It is well to put the defect in the right place - not in the law, but in the people. When the people are fairly waked up, the Legislature cannot keep them back. The greatest defect in the law is in not providing a visitor for common schools.
Mr. Louis. The moment further authority is given by the Legislature, the people will cease to act. We can do the business as well as the Legislature. We must make people understand the necessity of a higher standard.
The question was then laid on the table.
On motion, Mr. Louis had leave to withdraw his resolution.
Adjourned, till 7 o'clock P.M., at the Methodist Meeting house.
Met according to adjournment. Prayer by Rev. Mr. Farris.
The minutes of the meeting were then read.
On motion, Resolved, That this Association recommend the forming of Town Associations throughout the County, and that they report through their delegates at the next annual meeting of the Association.
The first question discussed was then taken up again, and some interesting remarks were made on the importance of qualifications for governing, by Rev. Mr. Farris, and Mr. Michael Ormiston. Question then laid on the table.
An address by Rev. T. Wickes, was then read by E. B. Perkins, Esq.
The following motion was then made and seconded: That we recommend to the Directors and Teachers of schools to introduce and insist on the use of the Bible in their schools. Discussed by E. B. Perkins, Esq., the President, Mr. W. Ormiston, and then adopted.
On motion, Resolved, That the thanks of the Association be presented to the Trustees of the Methodist and Presbyterian Meeting houses, for the use of their respective houses during this meeting.
On motion, the thanks of the visiting gentlemen were presented to the inhabitants of Barlow for their hospitality during this meeting.
The Association then adjourned.
Wm. D. Emerson, Sec'y.